In his Adirondack Almanac: A Guide to the Natural Year, Tom Kalinowski talks about the hiddenness of insect life during the winter months. One of the many places where insect life still goes on is deep inside plant tissue. "Certain species of minute flies, midges, and wasps," Kalinowski explains, "lay their eggs in the stems of goldenrod, or in the twigs of willows and aspens. After hatching, the larvae begin secreting chemicals that cause a noticeable thickening of the plant tissue in that immediate area. This resultant tumor-like growth does not interfere with the functions performed by the stems, nor does it harm the plant. It does, however, add to the stem's insulation , making it a more suitable place for the larvae to spend the winter" (179).