GLOSSARY OF KEY GREEK WORDS

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1: Genesis

Homer Background
2. Odysseus' voyage
3. Magic words
4. Mission to Achilles
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6. They buried Hektor
7. Odysseus' Return
8. City of Dreams
9. Homer in Hades
10 Technology & Lit

Homer Exam
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11. Socrates busted
12. Socrates' trial
13. Socrates in jail
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Plato Exam
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15. Acts of God
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Depending on context, adjectives in -os (masc.), may be given with other endings:

- (fem.),-on (neut.),-oi (masc. pl.),-ai (fem. pl.), -a (neut. pl.).

agathos good, noble

agn, pl. agnes coming together; contest; agony; ordeal; trial

agor, pl. agorai public assembly, place of public assembly

aids shame, sense of shame; sense of respect for others; honorableness

ainos authoritative utterance for and by a social group; praise; fable; ainigma riddle

aitios responsible, guilty; aiti responsibility, guilt; cause, case

akhos grief, public expression of grief by way of lamentation or keening

alths (adjective) true, true things; altheia (noun) truth

aret striving for a noble goal, for high ideals; noble goal, high ideals

aristos best, superlative of agathos; aristeia: designates the hero's great epic moments that demonstrate his being aristos

at, pl. atai veering, aberration, derangement; disaster; punishment for disaster

thlos (aethlos) contest, ordeal; thlts athlete

bi (bi in the language of Homeric poetry) force, violence

daimn, pl. daimones supernatural force (= unspecified god or hero) intervening in human life; eudaimni state of being blessed with a good daimn

dmos, pl. dmoi district, population of a district; community

dik, pl. dikai judgment (short-range); justice (long-range); dikaios just

ekhthros enemy [within the community], non-philos

epos, pl. epea utterance, poetic utterance

eris strife, conflict

esthlos genuine, good, noble; synonym of agathos

genos stock ("breeding"); generating [of something or someone]; generation

hrs, pl. hres hero

hsukhos serene; hsukhi state of being hsukhos

hieros sacred, holy

hr, pl. hrai season, seasonality; time; timeliness

hubris outrage (etc.)

kakos bad, evil, base, worthless, ignoble; kakots state of being kakos; debasement

kerdos, pl. kerdea gain, profit; desire for gain; craft employed for gain; craftiness

kharis, pl. kharites reciprocity, give-and-take, reciprocal relationship; initiation of reciprocal relationship; the pleasure or beauty derived from reciprocity, from a reciprocal relationship; gratification; grace, gracefulness; favor, favorableness

khoros chorus = group of singers/dancers

kleos, pl. klea glory, fame (especially as conferred by poetry); that which is heard

koros being satiated; being insatiable

kosmos arrangement, order, law and order, the social order, the universal order

krn sort out, separate, decide, judge

lussa rage, fury, frenzy. This word id related to lukos wolf, so the image is one of wolf-like rage.

mantis seer, prophet

mnis supernatural anger

menos power, life-force, activation (divinely infused into cosmic forces, like fire and wind, or into heroes); a partial synonym of thmos; a partial synonym of mnis

mtis artifice, stratagem, cunning intelligence. A second meaning, used in the episode of Odysseus and the Cyclops, is nobody.

moira, pl. moirai plot of land; portion; lot in life, fate, destiny

mthos special speech; special utterance; myth

nemesis the process whereby everyone gets what he or she deserves

nomos, pl. nomoi local custom; customary law; law

noos: designates realm of consciousness, of rational functions; intuition, perception; principle that reintegrates thmos (or menos) and psukh after death

nostos return, homecoming; song about homecoming; return to light and life

oikos house, abode; resting place of cult hero; family line; verb oike have an abode

olbios blessed, blissful; fortunate'; olbos bliss (pictured as material security)

paskh suffer, experience, be treated [badly or well]; pathos suffering, experience

penthos grief, public expression of grief by way of lamentation or keening

philos friend (noun); dear, near-and-dear, belonging to self (adjective); philots or phili the state of being philos

phrn, pl. phrenes: physical localization of the thmos

polis city, city-state

ponos ordeal, labor, pain

pontos sea (crossing)

psukh, pl. psukhai: synonym of thmos (or menos) at the moment of death; essence of life while one is alive; conveyor of identity while one is dead

sma, pl. smata sign, signal, symbol; tomb'; smain (verb) indicate, use a sma

sophos skilled, skilled in understanding special language; sophi being sophos

sphrn balanced, with equilibrium, moderate; sphrosun being sphrn

str savior (either bringing to safety or, mystically, bringing back to life); stri safety, salvation; sz (verb) save; be a str (for someone)

stasis division in a group; strife; division [= part of an organization, like a chorus]

telos coming full circle, rounding out, fulfillment, completion, ending, end; successfully passing through an ordeal; ritual, rite

themis, pl. themistes something divinely ordained

therapn, pl. therapontes attendant, minister; ritual substitute

thmos: designates realm of consciousness, of rational and emotional functions

tm, pl. tmai honor; honor paid to a supernatural force by way of cult

turannos, pl. turannoi (Lydian word for king): king (from the viewpoint of most Greek dynasties); unconstitutional ruler (from the viewpoint of Greek democracy)

xenos, pl. xenoi stranger who should be treated like a guest by a host, or like a host by a guest; xeni reciprocal relationship between xenoi; when the rules of xeni do not work, a xenos risks defaulting to the status of simply a stranger.

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Copyright  2001

 

READINGS for Powers of Literature
(with Lesson numbers):

1. Genesis 1
Creation Story

1. Genesis 11
Babel Story

2. Odyssey 8
Odysseus' voyage 1

3. Iliad 1-2
Achilles' anger

4. Iliad 9
Mission to Achilles

4. Peleus & Thetis
ancient sources

5. Iliad 15 ff
Death of Patroklos

6. Iliad 20 ff
Burial of Hektor

7. Odyssey 13-18
Return of Odysseus

8. Odyssey 20-24
City of Dreams

9. Life of Alexander
the Homeric king

10. Origins of writing
ancient sources

11. Plato, Euthyphro
Socrates gets busted

12. Plato, Apology
Socrates on trial

13. Plato, Crito
Socrates in jail

14. Plato, Phaedo
Socrates in heaven

15. Luke, Acts
Paul does Christ

16. Saint Francis
gospel without text

17. Chretien, The Knight of the Cart
Sire Lance's genes

18. Virgil, Aeneid
Aeneas & Dido