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subject index
site map & outline
reading list

instructor
technical FAQ
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READINGS for Powers of Literature
(with Lesson numbers):

1. Genesis 1
Creation Story

1. Genesis 11
Babel Story

2. Odyssey 8
Odysseus' voyage 1

3. Iliad 1-2
Achilles' anger

4. Iliad 9
Mission to Achilles

4. Peleus & Thetis
ancient sources

5. Iliad 15 ff
Death of Patroklos

6. Iliad 20 ff
Burial of Hektor

7. Odyssey 13-18
Return of Odysseus

8. Odyssey 20-24
City of Dreams

9. Life of Alexander
the Homeric king

10. Origins of writing
ancient sources

11. Plato, Euthyphro
Socrates gets busted

12. Plato, Apology
Socrates on trial

13. Plato, Crito
Socrates in jail

14. Plato, Phaedo
Socrates in heaven

15. Luke, Acts
Paul does Christ

16. Saint Francis
gospel without text

17. Chretien, The Knight of the Cart
Sire Lance's genes

18. Virgil, Aeneid
Aeneas & Dido

 

                             subject index


But where's Dante?Search Powers of Literature by subject or key word
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For best understanding of the course, follow the lessons in number order as shown on the site map or lesson list..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A

Aaron (Moses and the burning bush); (prophetic eloquence)

Abel (in Genesis); (patriarchs  of Judaism)

Abraham (and Isaac in Genesis); (multitude of children); (Palestine promised by the Lord); (patriarchs  of Judaism)

Academy (Plato's school); (date founded); (the origin of academic life); (Socratic dialogues as advertising for the Academy); (Hekademos); (topographical symbolism); (Athenian charter to the Academy); (Plato's Academy as a supper club or cafe); (academic freedom); (think tank for politics); (Christian Emperor Justinian destroys the Academy); (Socrates as idealized teacher); (Platonic education); (Aristophanes' Clouds and smearing of Socrates' reputation); (cyber-school); (the Academy as an institution for cortical control);

Accident (no accidents in Homer)

Acculturation (defined)

Achaeans (city-sacking pirates); (in Trojan War); (classical Athens as an Achaean pirate state); (Christian church at Achaea founded by Paul)

Acheron (lake of necromancy); (river of compulsions in Dante's Inferno)

Achilles (the hunter becomes the prey); (identification of Achilles with Hektor); (guilt in Homeric warriors); (Achilles strength is his magic); (anger subject of the Iliad); (anger with Agamemnon); (David painting of anger); (Achilles' first prayer); (Achilles' culture); (as bard); (confident in slaying Hektor); (cult of Achilles in the Iliad); (mission to Achilles); (rejects heroism); (the choice of Achilles); (meaning of name "Achilles"); (as son of Peleus and Thetis); (Achilles choice between parents); (Oedipus complex); (and Jesus); (Achilles' heel); (killed by Paris and Apollo); (Achilles second prayer); (Achilles as creative creature); (graphic image fighting with Athena); (fated not to sack Troy); (Achilles' ashes to be buried with Patroklos); (Patroklos story is magical for Achilles); (god like); (graphic image slaying foe); (divine armor); (miraculous shield); (reconciliation with Agamemnon); (serves as paid mercenary in Trojan War); (fed with ambrosia, food of the gods); (magic war cry); (destined to be slain by Apollo's arrows); (Achilles as creative creature); (Achilles is no behavioral role model); (Achilles line of descent); (combat with Hektor); (treats Hektor as an animal); (Achilles sympathy with Patroklos); (Achilles bitterness toward Zeus); (Achilles possessed by Patroklos hero-spirit); (funeral of Achilles); (in the City of Dreams, Hades); (Achilles as prototype action hero); (extermination of Achilles' line of descent); (story of Meleager affects Patroklos but not Achilles); (Alexander the Great as descendant of Achilles); (Neoptolemus as asserted son of Achilles); (Socrates makes "the choice of Achilles"); (character of Achilles); (Jesus makes "the choice of Achilles"); (sensory or passive character description)

Acting (literary critics pretend to speak for poets); (acting the part of a philosopher); (impersonation of spirits in prophecy generally); (impersonation of God in Christian preaching); (acting in the Book of Acts); (Francis performs Jesus)

Action (Achilles as prototype man of action); (nouns and verbs)

Actium (battle ends Hellenistic Age); (ends Hellenistic Age)

Acts of the Apostles (general information); (text); (Homeric features); (acting in the Book of Acts); (economics in original Christianity according to Acts); (persecution against Paul?)

Adam (in Genesis); (naive figure in Genesis); (rebellion from God); (simulation or crash test dummy); (children); (compare Francis in "Canticle of the Creatures"); (patriarchs  of the Jews); (sensory or passive character description); (medieval Eden story and free will);

Adultery (in early literary romances)

Advertising (Socratic dialogues as advertising for the Academy); (Alexandrian propaganda); (Francis stories and images as advertising for Franciscan shrine at Assisi)

Advice (superstition and prophecy)

Ĉgeus (father of Theseus and the Ĉgean Sea)

Aegina, Temple of ("dying warrior" image)

Aeolus, god of winds (and the windbag in the Odyssey)

Aeneid, (Virgil's imitation of Homer); (internet links for Virgil and the Aeneid);  (sensory or passive character description); (Virgil's Aeneid and Dante); (Aeneid as cult foundation myth of Roman Empire);

Aeneas (to lead the Zeus cult after Trojan War); (guiltless); (Aeneas line of descent); (pious Aeneas); (sensory or passive character description); (Virgil's Aeneas); (genetic determinism); (morality of Virgil's Aeneas); (Carthage, Dido and Aeneas' survivor syndrome);

Aeschines (disciple of Socrates)

Aeschylus (Orestia and the Odyssey)

Aesop (fables set in verse by Socrates); (Aesop's fables)

Agamemnon (blind to spirits); (cause of plague); (abuse of power); (controlled by Achilles' magic); (gift offerings to Achilles); (conciliation with Achilles); (madness of Agamemnon); (anxiety, inferiority complex); (Agamemnon's line of descent); (in the City of Dreams, Hades); (extermination of Agamemnon's line of descent); (resurrected by Agesilaus of Sparta); ("death mask of Agamemnon")

Age (and youth)

Agriculture (products belong to the gods and heroes)

Ajax (on mission to Achilles)

Alcestis (compared to The Knight of the Cart)

Alexander the Great (founder of Alexandria); (love of Homer); (and the Indo-European Empire of the Bronze Age); (Plutarch's life of Alexander); (tomb of Alexander and the Iliad); (bust by Lysippus, Alexander's court sculptor); (fraudulent pedigree); (resources for study); (Alexander and Diogenes); (sensory or passive character description)

Alexandria, Egypt (foundation myth of city); (Alexandrian culture)

Alexandria, library (scholars establish texts of Homer); (library burned by zealots); (manuscripts of Homer); (Hellenic and Egyptian elements in the great library); (librarian priesthood establishes texts of Homer); (resources for study)

Alkinoos (or good-mind in the Odyssey)

Allegory or metaphoric action (in Homer); (allegory of Dante's Commedia);

Alphabet (introduced into Greece); (borrowed by the Greeks from the Phoenicians)

Amazons (resisted the Zeus-men with force)

Amygdala (fight or flight expressions in Dante's Inferno);

Amyntor (father of Phoenix in Iliad)

Anagogical meaning (in the Bible and in Dante);

Anaxagoras (philosopher who fled from trial)

Ancestors (called heroes by the Hellenes); (number of generations descended from Zeus important for seniority); (Cecrops, first ancestor of Athens); (fraudulent pedigree of Alexander the Great)(Daedalus as hero ancestor of Socrates)

Andromache (wife of Hektor in Homer); (and Hektor, foreboding)

Angel (St Matthew and the Angel); (Francis receives stigmata)

Anger (storms reflect anger of gods); (anger the subject of the Iliad); (in male behavior); (anger of spirits in hero worship); (of Odysseus hero spirit); (Odysseus' name means child of anger); (anger of Zeus at Athens); (gods became wrathful for impiety); (anger/love syndrome); (mammalian emotions in Inferno); (hostility in Dante's Inferno);

Animals (hunting routine of predators); (victims and seekers for immortality through art); (food animals); (animal sacrifice and poetry); (cattle in the Odyssey); (Lotus Eaters as animals); (transforming animals into people); (story of animal killed in the hunt is the prototype of Hellenic story-telling); (animals acquire powers of human speech to tell their story); (animal sacrifice offered to human dead in Neolithic Age) ; (animal stories and children); ("dog" and animal name-calling); (animal herd as model for culture); (Achilles treats Hektor as animal); (Odysseus as a slaughtered animal); (cattle theme in the Odyssey); (deer hunting); (Hellenes use of horses and chariots); (early writing on animal skins); (animal vs spiritual states); (word "animal" from anima or spirit); (Minotaur in Plato); (Aesop's fables set in verse by Socrates); (Francis of Assisi preaching to animal brothers and sisters); (animals in Christmas manger scene); (romantic lovers as animals engaged in sexual selection); (sin or vice as human instinct adapted for pre-civilized living conditions); ("sin" or "vice" as human animal instinct); (the birds and the bees); (reptilian and mammalian brain in humans);

Animation (from Latin anima, spirit)

Anthropomorphic gods (of the Hellenes); (anthropomorphic God in Jesus Christ)

Antigone, Sophocles (spiritual values); (summary of Antigone)

Antikleia ("anti-fame," mother of Odysseus)

Antinoos (the mindless rival in the Odyssey); (contrast with Hektor as victim)

Antisthenes (disciple of Socrates, rival of Plato, founder of the Cynic philosophy); (cynic, teacher of Diogenes)

Antony, Saint (follower of the gospel)

Anytus (and prosecutors of Socrates); (banishment from Athens)

Aphrodite (goddess of love); (mother of Aeneas in Virgil)

Apollo (inspiration of poetry); (priest Chryses); (brings plague); (oracle Kalkhas); (control of plague); (oracle in Oedipus); (kills Achilles); (destined to kill Achilles with his arrows); (feast of Apollo or Death in the Odyssey); (bow hunter of deer); (god of Socrates); (Socrates as Apollo's swan); (god of Thesean festival at Athens); (Pythons, engastromiths or "in-the-belly speakers")

Apollodorus (sentimental follower of Socrates)

Apollodorus (mythographer, story of Peleus and Thetis); (story of Cadmus)

Apollonius of Rhodes, Voyage of the Argo (Peleus story); (golden fleece)

Apology, Plato (Socrates trial defense)

Arcadia (remote mountain region); (Poussin's "Shepherds of Arcadia")

Architecture (Romanesque style)

Ares (god of war)

Archaic period (Greece); (orientalizing style in art); (geometric style in art)

Archaeology (can't find the past); (digs of ancient Greeks); (archaeological dig for Homer as parody of hero ritual); (empty formalism of archaeology)

Argos (city state that is head of Achaean league in the Iliad); (Trojan War conducted for benefit of Argos)

Aristippus (follower of Socrates who accepted fees)

Aristocracy of European knighthood (Sir = Sire) 

Aristophanes (Lysistrata); (send up in Plato's Symposium); (The Clouds and smearing of Socrates' reputation); (Socrates' jury)

Aristotle (founder of Lyceum); (founder of Aristotelian branch of philosophy); (approach to literature and Greek tragedy); (The Poetics); (imitation of action in Aristotle's theory of art); (Aristotle's Poetics); (Rembrandt's "Aristotle with bust of Homer"); (student at Plato's Academy)

Armenia (Hellenic homeland)

Armor (Achilles armor as disguise); (Achilles transformed by divine armor); (Achilles' shield and divine armor); (Achilles shield miraculous)

Art (Paleolithic cave painting); (immortalization through art); (glory or fame through art); (appeals to sympathy); (Homeric song as performing art); (art for art's sake); (spaceless time and timeless space in arts); (funerary art); (Keats' Grecian Urn); (nudity in Hellenic art); (nude figures in Greek art); (Bronze Age); (art/nature dualism); (imitation of action in Aristotle's theory of art); (Plato's theory of art); (idealist theory in art); (Socrates' trial as spiritual contest between artist and censors); (Socrates use of art in dying); (Socrates is to be seen only in art); (acting the part of a philosopher); (the bust or severed head); (Francis of Assisi a favorite subject of artists); (religion as the art that still retains spirits); (queen of the arts); (Giotto's art); (patronage of art in Middle Ages); (the myth of the genes and biology of art); (arts as means to induce joy in Dante);

Artemis (female Apollo, death-bringer to women); (Penelope's prayer for death); (bow huntress of deer)

Arthur (future return of King Arthur to rule Britain); (adultery in Malory, Le Morte D'Arthur); (Chrétien de Troyes); (The Knight of the Cart, classic structure); (common literary features of romances); (evils of lust shown in Malory's Lancelot and Guinevere); (Arthur as historic figure from a preliterate age); (Arthurian timeline); (the Norman image of Arthur as loser); (passive Arthur); (Guinevere's biological justification); (more Arthurian reading); (Arthurian timeline)

Artist (possessed seer in traditional society); (inspiration); (possessed by victim animal in Stone Age); (Socrates as magic artist escaping death); (roles of Virgil and Dante as imperialist artists)

Asclepius (popular Hellenist god of healing)

Asia Minor (Hellenic homeland)

Assyria (conquers Israel); (Jonah preaches to the Assyrians); (Last Judgment in Isaiah); (siege of Jerusalem); (Ishtar and the underworld)

Astronomy (studied by Pythagoreans)

Astyanax (child of Hektor and Andromache in Homer)

Ate (goddess who brings madness to Agamemnon)

Athena (in the Parthenon) (Phidias' statue); (restrains Achilles' anger); (as wisdom or reason); (Athena and the centaur); (in Raphael's Knight's Dream); (image, with Achilles); (in control of the hero-spirit of Odysseus); (reveals "Odysseus" to Telemakhos); (Odysseus in Athena's service as death-bringer); (Athena and Poseidon as first gods at Athens); (Pallas Athena or political Athena)

Athens (classical period); (democracy); (golden age); Peloponnesian War); (Thirty Tyrants); (Raphael's "School of Athens"); (fall of the Athenian empire); (theater of Dionysus); (Plato's mad world of Socrates); (Athenian culture exposed by Socrates as masquerade); (classical Athens as an Achaean pirate state); (democracy, conscience and soul searching in classical Athens); (Athens permits Plato's Academy); (Athenian charter to the Academy); (legal wrangling in classical Athens); (anger of Zeus at Athens); (Socrates' Athens is not a unified cult); (Theseus the father of Athenian politics); (Cecrops, first ancestor of Athens); (Athena and Poseidon as first gods at Athens); (Pallas Athena or political Athena); (the agora or marketplace of Athens); (picture gallery of ancient Athens); (Thesean festival at Athens, background to the death of Socrates); (Thesean festival ship); (Christian church at Athens said founded by Paul)

Atrocities (in culture wars); (avoidance of responsibility through heroic madness)

Attalus, King of Pergamum (and "The Dying Gaul")

Augury (Kalkhas the augur); (and medicine); (Kalkhas' augury); (critics pretend to interpret remains of poets)

Augustine (Confessions); (conversion to Christianity through Paul); (Augustine's sin/grace dualism); (sensory or passive character description)

Augustus, see Caesar Augustus

Aulis (scene of Achaeans' departure for Troy)

Autobiography (in Augustine's Confessions); (Dante as subject of the Commedia); (the earliest autobiographies); (autobiographical  meaning in Dante's Inferno);  

Autolykos (thief and grandfather to Odysseus in Odyssey); (thief and liar, explains Odysseus' behavior)

Avernus, (lake of necromancy)

B

Babel (Genesis story); (Steiner, After Babel); (Pieter Bruegel painting); (Babel as Babylon)

Babylon (Babylonians destroy the first temple of the Jews); (Babylonian exile of the Jews); (Babel as Babylon); (Ishtar and the underworld)

Bacchus (god of wine)

Baptism (early Christian initiation into the Holy Spirit); (John the Baptizer); (Jesus' baptism); (sensory or passive character description)

Bards (singing for supper); (Demodocus); (appeals to sympathy); (singing inspired by gods); (Achilles sings as a bard); (restricted to telling the truth); (bardic method is prototype for history writing); (Phemios bard at Ithaca); (illiteracy and blindness); (dating from Bronze Age); (Homer's oral style); (Chrétien de Troyes as a medieval literary descendant of Homer); (Taliesin, Arthur's bard)

Bede, Ecclesiastical History (story of Caedmon)

Bertrand de Born (failure of intellect in Dante's Inferno);

The Bell Jar, Sylvia Plath (cult fiction)

Behavior (human behavior in Homer); (psychopathology in the Odyssey; (evasion of responsibility through heroic madness)(dualism of consciousness); (law as marketplace for behavior); (Christians living in fear of Doomsday); ("sin" and "vice"); (honor code in Chrétien de Troyes); (the birds and the bees); (human behavior analyzed in Dante's Inferno);

Belief (required in all fiction and all history); (Socrates' belief in immortality)

Beowulf (example of Old English and Age of Memory)

Bernini (statue of Aeneas)

Beroul, The Romance of Tristan and Iseult; (romantic lovers go "back to nature"); (Arthurian timeline)

Bhagavad-Gita (and the ancient awakening of humanity)

Bible (Genesis story of Creation); (Genesis story of Babel); (out of favor today); (Abraham and Isaac);  (Jacob and Esau); (Noah's Flood)(prophets of Israel); (expulsion from paradise); (as cult book); (New Testament written in Greek); (dating for New Testament); (early Christian hymns); (faith in the Bible); (prophecy as organizing  principle of the Bible); (patriarchs  of Judaism); (prophets of New Testament); (truth of the Bible); (historical truth of the Bible); (readings about the New Testament); (Acts of the Apostles); (Moses and the burning bush); (Jesus' prophecy of the Son of Man); (classic structure in Exodus); (theme in Mark's gospel of non-recognition of Jesus' identity as God); (historical meaning in the Bible); (figural meaning in the Bible); (moral meaning in the Bible); (anagogical meaning in the Bible);

bin Laden (attack on World Trade Center and Pentagon); (heroes of Islam)

Biology (the myth of the genes and biology of art); (genetic determinism in Virgil's Aeneas)

Birth (rebirth of souls in Pythagoreanism and Plato); (rebirth in Holy Spirit at Christian baptism)

Blasphemy and sacrilege (in cultural wars); (tomb desecration and archaeology)

Boadt, Lawrence (Reading the Old Testament)

Boasting (Homeric warriors battle boasts)

Boccaccio (Troy story, Il Filostrato)

Bocklin, Arnold (painting "Isle of the Dead")

Body (battles for corpses in the Iliad); (corpse kept from decay by ointment of ambrosia); (body/soul duality); Ptolemy hijacks Alexander's corpse); (the cult of Socrates is sustained by his mind, not his body); (body/soul dualism in the Phaedo); (life without the body); (anthropomorphic God in Jesus Christ); (human bodies conditioned by nature in the wild)

Bonaventure, Saint (Major Life of St. Francis)

Boniface VIII, Pope (in Dante's Inferno)

Books (Age of Books); (and spread of British Empire); (book orientation of modern teachers of literature); (Giotto's art liberated illustrations and stories from books)

Bosnia (cultural war atrocities)

Botticelli, Sandro ("Athena and the Centaur")

Brain (triune brain); (heaven and hell as places in the brain); (Dante's fraud beast Geryon as proto-image of triune brain); (Dante's "malice" as failure of cortex); (reptilian compulsions in Dante's Inferno); (mammalian emotions in Dante's Inferno); (hostility and fraud as malicious use of intellect in Dante's Inferno)

Briseis (slave girl in the Iliad); (rape by Achilles); (Agamemnon shames Achilles); (restored to Achilles); (rape of Briseis)

Britain (Arthurian timeline)

British Empire (spread during Age of Books)

Broadcast media (radio, TV, film)

Bronze Age (arrival of first Hellenes); (end of the age); (Linear B writing); (bards); (art)

Brown, Raymond (An Introduction to the New Testament)

Bruegel, Pieter ("Tower of Babel"); ("Landscape with the Fall of Icarus")

Buddha (and the ancient awakening of humanity)

Burkert, Walter (books on Greek religion)

Burne-Jones ("Theseus and the Minotaur") 

Butler, Samuel (translator of Homer) 

Byron, Lord ("The Destruction of Sennacherib")

C

Caedmon (first English poet)

Cadmus (first introduced the alphabet to the Greeks); (story in Apollodorus); (story in Pausanias); (hero shrine in Boeotia); (as a snake) 

Caesar Augustus (battle of Actium); (ends Hellenistic Age)(deified); ("Deeds of Divine Augustus"); (Virgil's Aeneas and Dante); (Aeneid as cult foundation myth of Roman Empire);

Caesar, Julius (deified);

Cain (in Genesis); (patriarchs  of Judaism)

Calling (the "call" of the prophet); (Moses and burning bush)

Calypso (in Odyssey, name means "buried"); (earth mother) 

Canaan (known to the Greeks as Phoenicia)

Cannibals (Cyclopes); (Laestrygonians in the Odyssey)

Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer (example of Middle English and Age of Manuscripts)

Caravaggio, ("St Matthew and the Angel")

Carpe diem (seize the day poetic theme)

Cart (image of death journey)

Carthage (Phoenician colony); (Carthage, Dido and Aeneas' survivor syndrome); 

Caryatids (maidens on the Athenian Acropolis) 

Cashdan, Sheldon (The Witch Must Die)

Castagno, Andrea del (image of Dante);

Catcher in the Rye, J.D. Salinger (cult fiction)

Cattle (treatment of victims as cattle in the Odyssey); (Lotus Eaters as cattle); (Hermes god of cattle robbers); (cattle theme in the Odyssey)

Catullus (magic song); (fates at the wedding of Peleus & Thetis)

Cavalcante, Guido (in Dante's Inferno)

Caves (Paleolithic cave art); (Cyclopes' cave of fame); (Antigone's cave of martyrdom); (Plato's parable of the cave); (Trophonius' hole); (cave art and the triune brain);

Cecrops (first ancestor of Athens)

Celebrity (and modern idolatry); (glory or fame of heroes); (fame of Odysseus and its price)

Celts (defeated magic)

Cemeteries (Plato's Academy)

Censorship (literature is lethal); (decline of censorship in recent times); (censorship and disillusion); (Biago censors Michelangelo for nudity)

Centaur (beast-man Centaur)

Cervantes, Miguel de (Don Quixote); (Don Quixote statue)

Chadwick, John (deciphers Linear B)

Chance (no chance in Homer)

Chapman, George  (first English translation of Homer); (Keats, "On first looking into Chapman's Homer")

Characterization (as identification with others); (external vs internal); (as defined by situation in Socrates and others); (characterization without thought in Eden story); (self-consciousness in Hellenic characters); (character of Socrates); (character of Achilles); (stereotyped and idealized characterization in literary romances); (sensory or passive character description); (development of free will in Middle Ages)

Chariots (chariot warfare in Homer); (Hektor's charioteer)

Charon (classical god turned Christian devil)

Chartres (Notre Dame at Chartres)

Chaucer, Geoffrey (profane inspiration in the Renaissance); ("The Pardoner's Tale," insulting Death); (Canterbury Tales example of Middle English and Age of Manuscripts); (Chaucer's Troy story, Troilus and Creseyde); (parody of romance in Chaucer's Tale of Sir Topas)

Children (and parents in Homer); (sign of Zeus' or God's blessing); (death of children is the sign of Zeus's hatred); (father's absence in the Odyssey); (child abuse); (Icarus son of Daedalus and disciples "sons" of Socrates); (anger/love syndrome); (Guinevere's biological justification)

Chivalry (and courtly love); (Sir knight = Sire knight); (honor code in Chrétien de Troyes); (a knight defends his lady's honor); (jousting tournament in Chrétien)

Chrétien de Troyes (author of romances); (generally); (The Knight of the Cart, classic structure); (power of the sex drive in The Knight of the Cart); (romantic lovers as animals engaged in sexual selection); (Chrétien as a literary descendant of Homer) ; (honor code in Chrétien); (Chrétien's women love winners); (Guinevere's biological justification); (mate selection in Chretien); (more Arthurian reading); (bibliography for Chretien); (passivity of Lancelot)

Christ (Paul as imitator of Christ); (Paul's vision of Christ on road to Damascus); (Jesus Christ as anthropomorphic God); (reinterpretation of Jesus as the Son of Man); (The Harrowing of Hell); (sensory or passive character description); (Easter in Dante's Commedia);

Christianity (and Hellenism); (male sky god); (Eucharist, manna and Homeric ambrosia); (misunderstanding of Jesus in Mark's gospel); (Christian Emperor Justinian destroys the Academy); (Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire); (Strephen the first martyr); (Jesus as a Hellenic hero); (New Testament written in Greek); (Christendom illustrates powers of literature); (Christianity as a literary practice); (divisions between Christians); (early Christian hymns); (Baptism as Christian initiation into the Holy Spirit); (Holy Spirit as Christian counterpart to Muse or Lord); (crackdown on story-telling and heresies); (Holy Communion as Paul's prophecy); (Paul as imitator of the Lord and Christ); (Paul appeals to Hellenists); (Christians living in fear of Doomsday); (Jesus' prediction of the kingdom to come); (Christianity is a collection of images for imitation); (Theology) (Christians blamed for fall of Rome); (Christianity as imitation of Jesus); (faith in the Bible); (Judeo-Christian timeline); (prophecy as organizing  principle of the Bible); (protestant Book of Martyrs); (Christian morality in Paul); (readings about The New Testament); (Acts of the Apostles); (economics in original Christianity according to Acts); (trial of Stephen and origin of Hellenist preachers); (faith healing); (theme in Mark's gospel of non-recognition of Jesus' identity as God); (Jesus' prediction of the Son of Man); (Francis performs Jesus); (church Latin); (church attacks sin or vice, bodily instincts); (Paul's idea of Adam and Christ); (Easter in Dante's Commedia);

Christmas (origin of manger scenes)

Chryses (priest of Apollo in Homer)

Church (and state in the European Middle Ages); (church attacks sin or vice, bodily instincts); (the church as an institution for cortical control); (separation of church and state in Dante);

Circe (witch of the Odyssey); (earth mother) 

City of God (Augustine)

Civilization (early cult of Zeus based on animal model); (structure of classical civilization); (contribution of the Greeks); (romantic lovers go "back to nature" from civilization); (human bodies conditioned by nature in the wild); (disorientation in civilization of the High Middle Ages); (sin or vice as human instinct adapted for pre-civilized living conditions); (feudal codes of social conduct in Middle Ages); (Aeneid as foundation myth of Roman Empire); (cortex control and civilization);

Clare, Saint (and Francis)

Clark, Arthur C. (space satellite)

Classical period (Greece); (dates); (neoclassicism dates); (structure of classical civilization); (classical period detachment of authors from subjects)

Classics (out of favor today); (invention of the classics, oldies or re-runs); (The Knight of the Cart, classic structure)

Cleisthenes (Athenian political reformer)

Cleopatra (last Hellenistic Pharaoh); (ends Hellenistic Age); (Meleager's wife)

Cnossos (Crete, Minoan capital)

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (Lyrical Ballads and recovery of oral style in poetry)

Comedy (Aristophanes' Clouds and smearing of Socrates' reputation); (the plan and intent of Dante's Commedia);

Confession (in story telling); (Dante as the subject of Commedia)

Conflict (Homeric type versus Platonic type)

Conflict resolution (by ransom in the Iliad)

Confucius (and the ancient awakening of humanity)

Conscience (Socrates' daemon); (democracy and soul searching in classical Athens)

Consciousness (external/internal dualism); (body/soul dualism in the Phaedo); (Phaedo's divine comedy); (self-consciousness of Hellenic literature); (mental activity is infectious, copied); (mind, soul and consciousness); (the prophet in consciousness, believed and not believed)

Constantinople (preservation of Homer)

Constitution of the United States (and Athenian democracy)

Consultants (as prophets and readers of future events)

Contracts (agreement of minds); (implied contracts); (American Declaration of Independence and implied contracts); (social contract theory); (John Rawls, A Theory of Justice)

Conversion (spiritual); (conversion of Augustine to Christianity through Paul); (Paul's "conversion"); (Pentecost)

Coroner (post-mortem report); (literary criticism) 

Corpse (battles for corpses in the Iliad); (importance of burial in Iliad); (kept from decay by ointment of ambrosia)

Cortex, see brain.

Courage (and temperance of the philosopher); (Francis as crusader)

Courtship (literary romances model courtship for young people); (monogamy and celibacy arising in the Middle Ages); (courtly love); (Sir knight = Sire knight); (a knight defends his lady's honor); (jousting tournament in Chrétien); (the birds and the bees); (Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love)

Covey, Steven (The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People)

Cowboys and Indians (Erik Erikson's Childhood and Society)

Creativity (powers and limits in Genesis); (creative creatures in Genesis); (life in time requires creativity); (creative creatures in Peleus and Thetis story); (Achilles as creative creature); (Homeric battlefield is an image of imagination); (Achilles as creative creature); (creative side of creature emerges in middle ages);

Crete (Minoan civilization)

Criticism, see Literary criticism

Crito (friend and patron of Socrates)

Cult fiction (modern literature of non-conformism); (basic plot type in cult literature); (misunderstanding of Jesus in Mark's gospel); (Socratic dialogues as promotion for Plato's cult); (faith in the Bible); (Aeneid as cult foundation myth of Roman Empire);

Cults, (secular Athens); (literature without cults)(multiculturalism in Genesis); (cultivation of followers); (persecution and atrocities by cults); (identifying your cult and culture); (magic as spiritual practice of other cults); (defined); (cult of Apollo's oracle in Oedipus); (cult of Achilles in the Iliad); (cult of Zeus); (cult of Odysseus); (cult of Odysseus at Ithaca); (cult of Alexander)(Plato and the cult of the Academy); (Pythagorean cult); (Socrates' Athens is not a unified cult); (structure of classical civilization); (Socrates survives death in his cult); (the cult of Socrates is sustained by his mind, not his body); (withdrawal into cult life as a coping strategy); (Bible and Koran as cult books); (faith in the Bible); (original Christianity according to Acts); (how prophetic cults grow); (how cult membership is maintained); (Aeneid as cult foundation myth of Roman Empire);

Cultural powers (of literature); (counter-cultural powers of literature); (the end of culture in disillusion); (Achilles' powers limited by culture); (cultural versus natural powers in Achilles); (Aeneid as cult foundation myth of Roman Empire);

Culture (product of magic); (cultural limits on magical powers); (cultural studies); (culture wars); (culture conflicts); (dangers of culture wars); (blasphemy, sacrilege and heresy in culture wars); (destruction of culture by disillusion); (Stone Age culture); (limits magic in Homer); (culture of Achilles in Iliad); (defined); (culture of Oedipus); (suitors in the Odyssey lack culture); (Alexandrian culture);  (Athenian culture exposed by Socrates as masquerade); (expulsion from paradise); (contribution of the Greeks); (maintaining a culture)

Curse (of the cyclops); (mother curses Meleager); (how cyclops' curse works out)

Cycladic Islands (and figurines); (Bronze Age art)

Cyclopes (Odysseus visit to Polyphemus' cave); (prophecy); (curse); (how cyclops' curse works out); (Odysseus' thinking process)

Cynics (followers of Socrates); (founded by Antisthenes); (Diogenes the cynic); (Jesus as cynic)

D

Daedalus (Socrates heroic ancestor, inventor of arts); (Daedalus' moving statues); (Daedalus as magician); (Daedalus invents flying); (Icarus unable to keep up)

Daemonology (introduction to spirits)

Daemons (unnamed spirits); (Socrates' daemon as conscience); (Socrates as daemon of philosophy); (God's adversaries); (as signs of impiety and nonconformism); (Odysseus hero-spirit as daemon); (Telemakhos calls his father's daemon in Odyssey); (heroic possession in Homer); (Socrates' daemon or divine sign)

Dante Alighieri (timeline and biographies for Dante); (as mystic); (Dante as the subject of the Commedia); (Virgil and Dante); (Dante's disappointing emperor); (Dante's On Monarchy); (heaven and hell as places in the brain); (plan of the Commedia); (image by Andrea del Castagno); (autobiographical  meaning in Inferno); (reptilian compulsions in Inferno); (mammalian emotions in Inferno); (Dante's hostility); (materialism emerging in early modern world); (Dante's fraud);

Daphnis and Chloe (Hellenistic novel)

Dardanos (house of Dardanos favored by Zeus)

Darwin (idea of genetic survival in early Zeus cult); (romantic lovers as animals engaged in sexual selection); (honor code in Chrétien de Troyes); (the birds and the bees); (more reading in genetics and evolution); (The Descent of Man)

David (painting anger of Achilles); ("The Death of Socrates")

Dawkins, Richard, (The Selfish Gene)

Death (land of the dead in the Odyssey); (resurrection of the dead in the Odyssey); (sacrifice or unity of life and death as core idea of story telling); ("dying warrior" image); (Kalkhas, reader of dead); (coroner's reports); (obituaries); (eulogies); (Sarpedon death is fated); (battles for corpses in Iliad); (Thetis' lament); (importance of burial in Iliad); (relentless killing in Iliad); (mortals were made to die); (funerary art); (acting out of death in funerals); (eat, drink and be merry); (Egyptian Book of the Dead); (return of the dead Odysseus); (Calypso means burial); (Bocklin's "Isle of the Dead"); (abodes of the dead); (hero cults present the dead); (feast of Apollo or Death in the Odyssey); (Odysseus as personification of Death); (death personified); (Egyptian Book of the Dead and the Odyssey); (insulting Death in Chaucer's Pardoner's Tale); (death mask of Agamemnon); (Alexander's tomb)(dualism of the living and the dead in heroic age thought); (Plato's death and burial); (Cecrops, first ancestor of Athens); (Plato's dialogues as funerary art); (Socrates as Apollo's swan singing before death); (Socrates as magic artist escaping death); (Thesean festival at Athens, background to the death of Socrates); (fears about death are groundless); (Socrates survives death in his cult); (philosophy as practice for death in the Phaedo); (David's "The Death of Socrates"); ("Dying Gaul," Hellenistic statue); (tombstone of a young girl); (Peter recovers Tabitha from death); (Francis raises the dead); (classic structure of story-telling, the visit to the dead); (Lancelot opens his own tomb)

Decartes, Rene (substitution of "mind" for "soul")

Delos (island birthplace of Apollo, scene of Thesean festival)

Demeter and Persephone (myth of death and rebirth); (worship of grain goddess Demeter at Eleusis); (classic mystery structure); (in Dante's City of Dis);

Democracy (installed at Athens); (implications for literature); (democracy and soul searching in classical Athens); (Plato's satire on democracy); (United States' democracy)

Demodocus (Homeric bard in the Odyssey); (must stick to what the audience thinks is true)

Demons (God's adversaries); (heroic possession in Homer); (Satan as hero of Paradise Lost); (in Dante's City of Dis); (Malebranche demons in Dante's Malebolge);

Dialectic (philosophical method)

Dialogue (in Homer); (Plato invents the literary dialogue); (Platonic dialogue as major literary form in Europe for 2000 years)

Dido, queen of Carthage (in Virgil's Aeneid); (Carthage, Dido and Aeneas' survivor syndrome);

Diogenes (Cynic follower of Socrates); (basis for the Hermit, Tarot card); (proto-hippie); (in Raphael's "School of Athens"); (Diogenes and Alexander)

Diogenes Laertius (Lives of the Eminent Philosophers)

Diomedes (young man in Iliad); (sacks Thebes)

Dionysos (god of wine); (birth at Thebes); (theater of Dionysos at Athens); (bust or severed head of Dionysos)

Dis (City of Dis in Dante's Inferno);

Discretion (better part of valor)

Discrimination (inappropriate blaming)

Disguise (Achilles armor as disguise); (Achilles shield and armor); (Odysseus disguised as an old beggar); (Odysseus disguise as magical protection); (fraud in Dante's Inferno);

Disillusion (failure of magic in modern art); (destruction of culture by disillusion); (disillusion as coping strategy); (Dante's disillusion with empire)

Diversity (as educational ideal); (literature of diversity)

Don Quixote (tries to become what he reads)

Double (Patroklos as substitute for Achilles); (shadows of Dante's Inferno);

Dove (symbol of Holy Spirit in baptism); (Pentecost)

Doyle, Sherlock Holmes (awakens Dr. Watson)

Dragon (Raphael's St. George and the Dragon); (reptilian compulsions in Dante's Inferno);

Drama (dramatic style in Homer); (scenes and dialogue in Homer); (development of classical theater from Homer); (Francis performs Jesus); (followed narrative painting of Giotto school); (fraud in Dante's Inferno);

Dreams (Penelope's dreams in Odyssey); (City of Dreams, Hades, in the Odyssey); (dreams from gate of horn in Odyssey); (Phthia in Socrates' dream); (Socrates' dream of singing); (Innocent III dream of Francis); (Gregory IX dream of Francis)

Drews, Robert (The Coming of the Greeks)_

Dryden, John (example of Modern English and Age of Books)

Dualism (of external and internal consciousness)

Dummies (crash test dummies)

Duty (not a primary virtue in Homer)

"Dying Gaul" (Hellenistic statue)

E

Earth (Achilles' shield describes planet earth); (Socrates' description of Earth based on Homer)

Easter (Jesus' promise fulfilled); (Easter in Dante's Commedia);

Eating (bards and ancient banquets); (dinner in the Stone Age); (Lotus Eaters); (cannibalism in the Odyssey); (you are eaten as you eat); (first poets spoke as spirits of consumed food animals); (food chain and food chains); (eating in Iliad); (ambrosia food of the gods); (eat drink and be merry); (feast of Apollo or Death in the Odyssey); (hero ritual helps eaters avoid being eaten); (Plato's Academy as a supper club or cafe); (human sacrifice and starvation); (Stoics diet); (Epictetus and disciplined eating); (Epicurus in "The School of Athens"); (Holy Communion feast and hero ceremonies); (Paul's account of the Last Supper); (Francis and the thirsty man)

Economics (in original Christianity)

Education (Plato and manuscript art require audiences to be literate); (literature as moral or educative in Plato's theory of art); (writing and the great awakening of humanity); (teacher wars in Plato's dialogues); (sophists as evil educators); (the origin of academic life); (Plato's Academy as a supper club or cafe); (Socrates as idealized teacher); (Platonic education); (Plato's parable of the cave); (proper care and feeding of your mind); (Jesus' teacher); (cult indoctrination versus education);

Efferent nervous system (sensory and efferent drives);

Egypt (influence on Greek Thebes); (the wealth of Thebes); (Ramesses III and battle with Sea Peoples); (Alexander the Great as Egyptian Pharaoh); (Alexander's tomb as Egyptian mortuary temple); (Thoth inventor of writing and arts); (Plato's Socrates museum as funerary temple); (Moses and the burning bush); (Isis and Osiris); (classic structure in Exodus)

Egyptian Book of The Dead (and the Odyssey)

Ehrman, Bart D. (The New Testament: Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings)

Eleanor of Aquitaine (troubadours)

Electronic text (Age of Internet)

Eleusis (Eleusinian Mysteries and worship of Demeter); (classic mystery structure)

Eliade, Mircea (books on myth and history)

Elizabeth I of England (Spenser's Faerie Queene)

Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptizer (Elizabeth and Mary)

Emotions (mammalian emotions in Dante's Inferno);

Emotivism (a modern school of sophistry)

Empire (Aeneid as cult foundation myth of Roman Empire); (Dante's disappointing emperor); (Dante's On Monarchy);

Encouragement (as magic)

Endgame (for culture)

English (first poet Caedmon); (Indo-European language); (four ages of English); (spread of language and British Empire); (histories of English language)

Entertainment (power of); (magic and literature as entertainment)

Environmentalism (in Genesis)

Envy (in the Odyssey); (burden for Achilles and Heracles)  (Socrates envied for wisdom)

Epictetus (and disciplined eating); (and cognitive psychology)

Epicurus (in Raphael, "School of Athens")

Epidemics (and the medical purposes of ancient funeral rites)

Epithets (used in magic for calling spirits)

Erikson, Erik H. (Childhood and Society and cowboys and Indians)

Erinyes (spirit drives children mad)

Eristics (word fighting in classical Athens); (school founded by Euclides)

Ethics (see morality)

Ethiopian Story (Hellenistic novel)

Euclides (mystic follower of Socrates)

Eumaios (the "good man," Odysseus faithful swineherd); (errors in belief)

Europa (rape of Europa by Zeus); (Phoenician princess, mother of Minos) 

Europe (earliest European stories); (materialism emerging in early modern world noted by Dante);

Euripides, (Alcestis)

Euthydemus, Plato (Socrates meets the three stooges)

Euthyphro, Plato (summarized); (Socrates meets an inside-out man); (Euthyphro as absurd Zeus-man); (Euthyphro's sacrifice and praise to call the gods); (Euthyphro thought by the book)

Eurykleia (Odysseus' old nurse); (discovery of Odysseus scar); (the "good" servant)

Eurystheus (ruler of Hellenes through Hera's trick upon Zeus)

Eve (in Genesis); (children of); (naive figure in Genesis); (rebellion from God); (simulation or crash test dummy); (Michelangelo's "creation of Eve"); (children Cain and Abel); (blaming the serpent to avoid personal responsibility); (sensory or passive character description); (medieval Eden story and free will);

Evolution (readings in genetics and evolution); (the birds and the bees); (Darwin, The Descent of Man); (the myth of the genes and biology of art)

Expert opinion (versus public opinion in Plato) 

Exodus (and Passover in The New Testament); (Moses and the burning bush); (classic mystery structure)

Ezekiel, (major prophets of the Jewish Bible)

F

Fagles, Robert (trans Homer)

Fairness (envy in Homeric society)

Fairy tales (the Odyssey as fairy tale); (Cashdan, The Witch Must Die)

Faith (healing by Peter and others); (faith in the Bible); (faith healing)

Fame (or glory of heroes); (Sirens in the Odyssey); (Polyphemus is much fame); (temptation of Achilles); (Cleopatra and Patroklos names); (heroic choice); (rules the universe of heroic song); (Antikleia or anti-fame, mother of Odysseus); (of poets and songs); (fame and ignorant public opinion in Plato); (Homer's warriors motivated by shame or fame); (Plato's Crito motivated by fame)  

Fans and fanatics (possessed by art)

Fantasy (common literary features of romances)

Fate (Catullus magic song); (Achilles fate revealed by Thetis); (Sarpedon fate cannot be avoided)

Farinata degli Uberti (in Dante's Inferno);

Fathers (punishment for sins of our fathers); (Cleopatra and Patroklos names); (fathers and children in Homer); (Phoenix as father figure in Iliad); (ancestry as predictive); (Oedipus complex); (Telemakhos calls the powerful father spirit); (make-believe adventures of the father in the Odyssey); (Laertes, father of Odysseus); (Alexander's false pedigree)(Odyssey as basis for false genealogies among later Greeks); (Socrates' father); Daedalus father of Icarus and Socrates father to his disciples); (Francis' father)

Fear (in Homer explained by gods); (paranoia of Telemakhos); (pity and fear in Aristotle's theory of art); (fears about death are groundless); (courage of the philosopher)

Feminism (double standard of sexual morality in the Odyssey)

Feudalism (codes of social conduct in Middle Ages)

Fiction (asks for belief); (made up stories); (make-believe adventures of Odysseus in the Odyssey); (escape from intolerable situation of self); (Aeneid as social fiction)

Fight and flight (male response to stress); (in choice of Achilles); (Odysseus' thinking process); (in The Song of Roland); (mammalian emotions in Dante's Inferno); (Farinata degli Uberti in Dante's Inferno);

Film (and broadcast media); (evolved from drama)

Fire (Hephaistos' fire); (tongues of fire in baptism)

Figural meaning (in the Bible and Dante);

Florence, Italy (first printed text of Homer)

Flying (Hephaistos' invention of air craft); (Daedalus invents flight)

Food (see eating)

Fool (ship of fools and social criticism)

Forest (see wood)

Fortune and misfortune (sent from Zeus)

Fortune telling (Hellenic belief); (future already exists in Homer); (prediction of prophets)

Foxe, John (protestant Book of Martyrs)

Francesca da Rimini (in Dante's Inferno)

Francis of Assisi (follower of gospel Jesus); (a favorite subject of artists); (Rule and Life of the Friars); (Bonaventure's Major Life); (Canticle of the Creatures); (Francis' preaching); (in frescoes by Giotto's school); (performs Jesus); (Thomas of Celano legend); (Francis' father); (Innocent III); (Christmas manger); (Francis as crusader); (stigmata or wounds of Christ); (Francis and Clare); (Francis raises the dead); (Saint Damian's church crucifix);

Fraud (in Dante's Inferno);

Free will (development of free will concept in Middle Ages); (morality of Virgil's Aeneas);

French (and romance languages); (Chrétien de Troyes)

Freud, Sigmund (and Oedipus complex); (omnipotence of thought); (Telemakhos' incest)

Friendship (temptation of Achilles)

Funeral (eulogies or sermons); (funerary art); (Patroklos funeral); (Hektor's funeral); (funeral games); (funeral of Achilles); (youthful figures in funerary art); (ancient funeral rites designed to prevent epidemics); (tomb desecration); (funeral practices in Antigone); (Plato's dialogues as funerary art)

G

Galahad (disappearance of God in the Middle Ages);

Galatea (and her artist Pygmalion)

Galileo (use of literary dialogue)

Gaming (modern experience of literature); (God as fantasy master and game designer)

Gandhi (non-violence and prayer)

Gauthier, David (Morals by Agreement)

Gawain (Sir Gawain and the Green Knight); (genetics in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight) 

Geb (and Nut, Egyptian gods)

Generations (in Homer); (generations in descent from father Zeus); (Alexander's false genealogy)

Genesis (Creation story); (Tower of Babel story); (predicts muticulturalism); (rival spirits); (simulation or game); (storybook Eden); (original sin); (sung by Caedmon, the first English poet); (Cain and Abel); (Abraham and Isaac); (Jacob and Esau); (Noah's Flood); (Achilles' shield like creation in Genesis); (Eve and the serpent)(characterization without thought in Eden story)

Genes and genetics (genetic organization of Zeus cult); (genealogical structure of Zeus-man society); (piety and survival of the fittest); (motivation by genes in medieval romances of adultery); (romantic lovers as animals engaged in sexual selection); (genetics in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight); (Guinevere's biological justification); (mate selection in Chretien); (the birds and the bees)(more reading in genetics and evolution); (the myth of the genes and biology of art); (genetic determinism in Virgil's Aeneas)

Geoffrey of Monmouth, (Arthurian timeline)

Geometric style (in archaic Greek art)

George (Raphael's St. George and the Dragon);

Gérôme, Jean-Léon ("Pygmalion and Galatea") 

Geryon (Dante's fraud beast as proto-image of triune brain)

Giants (bones found by Greeks); (giant bones)

Gibbon, Edward (Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire); (Christians blamed for fall of Rome)

Gifts (Agamemnon's gifts to Achilles); (gods get to keep gifts); (Achilles accepts Agamemnon's gifts); (theft of grave goods); (Euthyphro's gifts to bribe the gods)

Giotto di Bondone (3-d painting)

Glory (or fame of heroes); (Sirens in the Odyssey); (Polyphemus is "much fame"); (heroic choice); (warriors want glory but not to die for it); (glory of Alexander)

God (as magician in Genesis); (as spirit in Genesis); (in monotheism); (God the fantasy master and technician in Genesis); (Socrates as servant of God); (Theology); (City of God, Augustine); (incarnation of God in Christianity); (Jesus as Son of Man); (theme in Mark's gospel of non-recognition of Jesus' identity as God); (medieval Eden story and free will); (disappearance of God in the Middle Ages);  SEE GENERALLY, Lord.

Gods (officially recognized by state religion); (Zeus, Hera and Hellenic mythology); (gods as agents of retaliation); (gods as agents to explain events); (control of warfare); (control of weather); (inspire bards); (origin in poetry); (gods in the Iliad); (anthropomorphic gods in Homer); (gods get to keep gifts); (explain men's fear and valor in Homer); (fall from favor with the gods); (gods became wrathful for impiety); (Aeneid and the divine basis for Roman Empire); (Polybius on the gods of the Romans);

Goethe (The Sorrows of Young Werther)

Golden Bough (Sir James Frazer's study of sympathetic magic)

Golden Rule (in Homeric songs); (Socrates and the Golden Rule)

Goods (temptation of Achilles)

Gorgias, Plato (Socrates takes on the professors of rhetoric)

Gospels, see Bible.

Gothic romances (types of literary romances)

Government (support of literature); (interest of Plato's Academy in theories of government)

Graces (Parthenon sculptures by Socrates)

Grail (disappearance of God in the Middle Ages);

Graveyard (location of hero rites); (Alexander's tomb)

Greed (in the Odyssey)

Greek (Homer's Greek); (Linear B); (New Testament written in Greek); about Greeks, see generally under Hellenes

Greek romances (types of literary romances); (Greek romances)

Green, Peter (From Alexander to Actium

Grief (restores humanity)

Griselda (and slander of heroines)

Guinevere (Darwinian adultery with Lancelot); (The Knight of the Cart, classic structure); (evils of lust shown in Malory's Guinevere); (Guinevere's honor)

Guilt (in Homer, spiritual retaliation); (Aeneas guiltless)

Gutchess, Dr. Gary Homer (instructor)

H

Hades (City of Dreams in Odyssey)

Hamlet, Shakespeare (like Telemakhos in the Odyssey)

Hannibal (and the Punic Wars);

Hebrews, see generally under Judaism.

Hegel (Reason in History)

Hekademos (namesake of Plato's Academy)

Hektor (Achilles' victim and alter-ego in Homer); (and Andromache, foreboding); (charioteer Kebrioes); (foolishness); (model of shame or civic duty); (hectoring rant or bluster); (Hektor's line of descent); (combat with Achilles); (treated as animal by Achilles); (ransoming of Hektor); (Hektor's funeral); (contrast with Antinoos as victim)

Helen of Troy (rape story); (image by Ingres); (Queen of Argos); (rape of Helen); (image in geometric art); (image by Ingres); (Sophie Schliemann wears the "jewels of Helen")

Hell, (Christ's Harrowing of Hell); (heaven and hell as places in the brain);

Helladic Dark Ages (time of chaos); (timeline); (gods); (time of the Zeus-men); (loss of writing)

Hellenes (Hellenic people); (invading conquerors); (Greek speaking people, story tellers); (attempt to see past illusion); (anthropomorphic gods); (pan-Hellenic culture shaped by Homer); (bow making and archery); (use of chariots and horses); (origins of Hellenes); (empires of the Hellenes); (self-consciousness of Hellenic literature); (contribution of the Greeks); (Hellenic and Jewish prophecy); (Jesus as a Hellenic hero)

Hellenism (basics); (as multicultural society); (pan-Hellenic culture shaped by Homer); (interest in self-observation); (thought transmission is major theme of Hellenic literature); (contribution of the Greeks); (Jesus as a Hellenic hero)

Hellenistic (term defined); (pseudo-Hellenism or quasi-Hellenism, imitation Hellenism); (Paul appeals to Hellenists); (Luke's gospel and Acts of the Apostles designed for Hellenists) (Hellenist preachers in Acts)

Hellenistic Age (dates); (new realism in Hellenistic art)

Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story (Hellenistic novel)

Henry VII of Luxembourg (Dante's disappointing emperor)

Hephaistos (peace-maker among gods); (invention of air craft); (Achilles' shield and divine armor); (Hephaistos' fire)

Hera (queen of gods in Hellenic mythology); (Heracles namesake); (opposed to Achilles); (classical vase image); (seduces Zeus); (fights with Zeus); (Rembrandt painting); (Gutchess' Hera on a microchip); (goddess of childbirth); (principal goddess of Argos)

Heracles (foremost Hellenic hero); (intended by Zeus to rule the Hellenes but tricked by Hera); (Alexander's descent from Heracles); (The Knight of the Cart, classic structure)

Heraclitus (early philosophy)

Hercules (foremost Hellenic hero)

Heresy (in culture wars); (story-telling and heresies in early Christian church)

Hermes (god of magic in Odyssey); (god of medicine in the Odyssey); (guides Priam to Achilles); (guide of the dead); (Hermes the thief); (even Hermes was impressed by Socrates' speech); (messenger to Aeneas in Virgil)

Herodotus, Hellenic historian (dates Homer); (presents the past); (works on line); (story of Cadmus and the alphabet); (on Greek written on skins)

Heroes (origin); (heroes as play figures); (Hellenic); (ancestors of the Hellenes); (Heracles); (hero as food animal); (glory or fame of heroes); (Achilles rejects heroism); (and Noah's Flood); (relics of heroes in Iliad); (nudity in art); (heroes as owners of cattle); (representation in literature); (heroes used to avoid personal responsibility for killing); (Achilles hero of Alexander)(deeds written on animal skins); (external and internal views of heroes); (slander or defamation of the hero); (dead Socrates as hero to Socratics); (heroism opposed to sophistry); (Plato invents the modern hero); (Socrates as polite hero); (hero Daedalus)  (Jesus as Hellenic hero); (Aeneas as Virgil's hero of Rome); (genetic determinism in traditional heroes)

Heroic Age (Hellenic history)

Heroic choice (surrenders nature for cultural advantage); (do martyrs and terrorists make heroic choice?); (reflected in Achilles second prayer); (choice between heroism and sophistry); (Socrates' heroic choice to die); ("choice of Achilles" as a misnomer); (Jesus' heroic choice ); (choice of Aeneas)

Hero cults (Hellenic cultures); (Hellenic hero cults); (acting out of death); (hero shrine of Trophonius); (hero cult of Odysseus at Ithaca); (hero cults present the dead); (cult of Alexander)(Plato's Academy as updated hero cult); (Socrates and the cult of Daedalus); (Jesus as a Hellenic hero);  (Roman Empire as literary cult of Aeneas);

Hero spirit (of dead ancestor); (ancestors in art); (of Odysseus); (tomb desecration); (Achilles inspires Alexander); (Daedalus inspires Socrates); (the risen spirit of Jesus is "witnessed")

Hero worship (Hellenic ancestor religion); (Hellenic hero worship); (Teiresias episode in the Odyssey); (offering of gifts and fair words); (time sense in hero worship); (relics of heroes in Iliad); (hero cults present the dead); (hero ritual helps eaters avoid being eaten); (hero ritual as tricking the dead); (in use at time of Trojan War?); (in use from Neolithic times?); (use of hero to avoid responsibility for killing); (archaeological dig for Homer as parody of hero ritual); (tomb desecration); (Euthyphro's sacrifice and praise echo hero religion techniques to call the gods); (Jesus as a Hellenic hero)

Heroic songs (teach heroes to accept gifts and praise); (suitors parody in maltreatment of Odysseus); (parody in Euthyphro's sacrifice and praise)

Hesiod (four ages of time); (pan-Hellenic culture shaped by Homer and Hesiod); (The Theogony in Plato's Euthyphro); (Euthyphro thought by the book)

Hesse, Steppenwolf (cult fiction)

Hezekiah (King of Judah)

Hippocrates (Hellenist medicine)

History (origin in poetry); (asks for belief); (Homer does not have a historian's plan); (history and Homeric time sense); (historian can't find the past); (why bother with history); (bardic method is prototype for history writing); (history traditionally presents the past); (modern historians and scientific method); (shrinking audiences for history); (hero cults present the dead); (Herodotus and Thucydides); (Hegel, Reason in History); (Hayden White's books); (history sources on line); (four ages of literature); (four ages of English); (difficulties with the historical Jesus); (Judeo-Christian timeline); (siege of Jerusalem by Assyrians); (truth of the Bible as history); (The New Testament as history); (Arthurian timeline); (Aeneid as divine history of Roman Empire); (historical meaning in the Bible); (materialism emerging in early modern world noted by Dante);

 Hitchcock, Alfred (Bates in Psycho)

Hitler (fan of Wagnerian opera)

Hobbes, Thomas (social contract theory); (Leviathan)

Holy Communion (origins); (Holy Communion and Passover); (Holy Communion and the feast of Apollo/Odysseus)

Holy Roman Empire (Dante's disappointing emperor)

Holy Spirit (received through baptism); (John the Baptizer); (Holy Spirit as Christian counterpart to Muse or Lord); (Holy Spirit, Elizabeth and Mary); (Jesus' baptism); (Pentecost); (sensory or passive character description)

Holy war (Francis meets the Sultan on crusade)

Homer (date); (Peisistratus texts); (standard texts established); (translations and editions of); (preserved at Constantinople); (first printed text at Florence); (Chapman's English translation); (Pope's translation); (Homer's Muse); (Homer's identity); (Homer's mistakes of history); (dawn of civilization); (pan-Hellenic culture shaped by Homer); (Homer does not believe in spiritual clap-trap); (probably knew writing); (reading or performing Homer); (educator of Greece); (archaeological dig for Homer shards as parody of hero ritual)  (literary criticism of Homer); (Ingres, "Apotheosis of Homer"); (texts of Homer established by Alexandrian librarians); (manuscripts of Homer); (Homer's Greek); (Homer's oral style); (Homeric conflict versus Platonic conflict); (Homer's warriors motivated by shame or fame); (Socrates' description of Earth based on Homer); (sensory or passive character description)

Homeric bards (singing for supper); (bard must meet audience expectations); (Homer's oral style); (Chrétien de Troyes as a medieval literary descendant of Homer)

Homeric hymns (and magical formulas for calling gods); (Hymn to Demeter, classic mystery structure)

Homeric songs (Iliad and Odyssey); (victim presentation); (appeals to sympathy); (secularize hero ritual performance); (immorality of Homer's gods)(vision of nature); (dawn of civilization); (pan-Hellenic culture shaped by Homer); (relationship between the Iliad and the Odyssey); (represent the heroes); (date of the Homeric songs); (theory of oral transmission of Troy story); (association of animal sacrifice and story telling); (texts established by Alexandrian librarians); (Homer's oral style); (poetic meter); (formulaic language); (repetitive language); (use of simile); (use of metaphoric action or allegory); (scenes and dialogue)(development into theater); (pairing of Iliad and Odyssey)

Homeric Question (who was Homer?)

Honor code (in Chretien); (Guinevere's honor)

Horace (comment on the opening of the Iliad in the middle)

Horror stories (in popular culture)

Hospitality (in Hellenic tradition)

Houdini, Harry (magician and escape artist in tradition of Daedalus)

Humanism (in Hellenic culture)

Humanities (term)

Human kind (creature-like and God-like in Genesis); (view in archaic literature); (rebellion from God in Genesis); (the creature who tells after dinner stories); (as predator animals); (humanizing effect of story telling); (appeals to sympathy); (identification with others in Homer); (human behavior in Homer); (mortals were made to die); (how people differ from animals); (people as thieves of cattle); (awakening of human kind in the ancient axial period) 

Human sacrifice (ritual backdrop for Socrates' trial)

Humpty Dumpty (as sophist)

Hunting (and magic); (hunter and victim are one); (hunter fleeing with the spoils); (Heracles the hunter); (origin of story telling among the Hellenes); (Odysseus' scar from hunting); (bow hunting of Artemis and Apollo)

Hymns (magic in the Iliad); (Homeric hymns and magical formulas for calling gods)

Hypocrisy (of Socrates' trial); (classic character type of the religious hypocrite)

I

I (Caesar's favorite pronoun if he had it)

Icarus (son of Daedalus and mythic model for the disciples of Socrates); (unable to keep up with Daedalus); (Bruegel, "Landscape with the Fall of Icarus")

Ice Age (Heracles as Ice Age figure)

Idealism (in Platonic art)

Identity (formation of new identity by rule breaking); (identifying your cult and culture); (achievement of personal identification through story telling); (identification through simile); (identification with victims in Homer); (you are what you eat); (Patroklos identification with victims); (multiple personality disorder in Telemakhos); (heroic identity assumed to avoid personal responsibility); (duality of consciousness); (Socrates sees beneath masks worn by hypocrites and pretenders in their social roles); (confusion of identity arising from politics); (thought transmission is major theme of Hellenic literature); (Dante's Commedia  as self image)

Idolatry (worship of singer or song itself)

Iliad (quest story in Homeric songs); (hunter becomes prey); (relation to the Odyssey); (pairing with the Odyssey); (reader interest peaks in times of war); (Alexander's casket copy)

Iliadic literature (vs Odyssean literature)

Illusion (Hellenic attempt to see past illusion); (illusion/reality duality); (Socrates trapped in illusion); (Phaedo's illusion of Socrates); (Socrates is to be seen only in art)

Imagination (source of inspiration according to Romanticism); (imagination rules the world)

Imitation (falsity of art); (Hellenistic as imitation of Hellenism); (simulation of reality in art); (art/nature duality); (imitation of action in Aristotle's theory of art); (imitation as exercise for aspiring writers); (teaching as imitation); (Phaedo's  imitation of Socrates); (Christianity as imitation of Jesus); (Paul as imitator of the Lord and Christ) ; (imitations of Jesus and Paul by Francis and Augustine); (Christianity is a collection of images for imitation); (Francis of Assisi as imitator of gospel Jesus); (Christianity as imitation of Jesus); (religion models ways of life); (Queen of the Arts)

Immorality (of Homer's gods); (of famous songs); (Socrates' death is not the end of him)

Impersonation (loss of faith in acting); (identification with others in Homer); (characterization of others); (singer possessed by hero in hero rituals); (story teller possessed by sacrificial victim); (killer impersonates hero to avoid blame)(Phaedo's  impersonation of Socrates); (Christianity as impersonation of the Lord)

Incest (multiple personality disorder in Telemakhos)

Indo-European languages (and the Hellenes)

Ingres (portrait of Napoleon); ("Jupiter and Thetis"); ("Apotheosis of Homer"); 

Inheritance (primogeniture in Iliad); (descent from father Zeus)

Initiation (into Holy Spirit through Christian baptism)

Inspiration (in spirituality and art); (profane inspiration in the Renaissance); (inspiration from personal imagination in Romanticism); (Caedmon inspired by God); (Percy Shelley, To a Sky-Lark); (bards inspired by gods); (inspired singers in hero rituals); (false inspiration and subjectivity in literature); (Alexander inspired by Homer); (literary critics inspired by poets); (thought transmission is major theme of Hellenic literature); (inspiration by the Holy Spirit)

Innocent III (Pope who approved the Rule and Life of the Friars Minor)

Intellect, see brain

Internet (Age of the Internet)

Interpretation (historical meaning in the Bibl and Dante); (figural meaning in the Bible and Dante); (moral meaning in the Bible and Dante); (anagogical meaning in the Bible and Dante);

Intimidation (as magic); (battlefield threats and boasting)

Ion, Plato (Homeric rhapsode); (rhapsodes perform Homer)

Iphigenia (image); (theme in art)

Iron Age (date)

Irony (in Shakespearian tragedy); (favorite theme of Homer)

Isaiah (Michelangelo); (revisions to Isaiah's manuscript); (Paul and Isaiah); (Last Judgment); (Paul fulfills Isaiah); (major prophets of the Jewish Bible); (siege of Jerusalem); (sensory or passive character description)

Iseult (Beroul's Romance of Tristan and Iseult); (Thomas of Britain's Tristram and Ysolt); (Gottfried von Strassburg, Tristram and Isolde); (romantic lovers go "back to nature")

Ishtar and the underworld (classic mystery structure)

Isis and Osiris (classic mystery structure)

Islam (heroes conduct terrorist attack on World Trade Center); (Francis meets the Sultan)

Israel (conquest of Canaan); (overthrow by Assyria)

Italian, (The Canticle of the Creatures); (romance languages)

J

Jacob and Esau (impersonation of sheep); (patriarchs  of Judaism)

Jacobi, Derek (performs Iliad)

Jainism (and the ancient awakening of humanity)

Jaspers, Karl (The Way to Wisdom)

Jefferson, Thomas (Declaration of Independence)

Jeremiah (Jewish prophet); (major prophets of the Jewish Bible)

Jerusalem (siege of Jerusalem by Assyrians)

Jesus (and the Kingdom of Heaven); (Michaelangelo's Pieta); (hero cults present or return the dead); (Socrates and Jesus) (sham trials of Jesus and Socrates); (Passover and Jesus' sacrifice); (misunderstanding of Jesus in Mark's gospel); (apparently crucified after conflict with priests of the temple); (comparison of Socrates and Jesus); (Jesus as a Hellenic hero); (Christianity as a literary practice); (the question of Jesus); (Jesus' story was oral); (baptism of Jesus); (the spirit of Jesus is "witnessed"); (witnessing Jesus in Acts); (story-telling about Jesus and heresies); (names "Jesus" and "Christ" in Paul; (Jesus' prediction of the kingdom to come); (vision of Christ on road to Damascus); (sightings of risen Jesus by first Christians); (Jesus Christ as anthropomorphic God); (Francis of Assisi imitates Jesus); (Christianity as imitation of Jesus); (prophets of New Testament); (Jesus' baptism); (Jesus' prediction of the Son of Man); (sensory or passive character description); (as figure receding into history);

John of Patmos (prophets of New Testament)

John the Baptizer (teacher of Jesus); (prophets of New Testament); (Holy Spirit, Elizabeth and Mary); (Jesus' baptism)

Jonah (depiction of the prophet in the Book of Jonah)

Joseph (patriarchs  of Judaism)

Journalism (obituaries)

Jousting (the tournament in Chrétien 

Joyce, (Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man); (Ulysses)

Judaism (and monotheism); (massacre of Jews by Hitler); (Hellenic and Jewish prophecy); (Jeremiah the prophet); (Assyria conquest of Israel); (Palestine promised by the Lord to the Jews); (Solomon's temple); (destruction of second temple); (Last Judgment in Isaiah); (Judaism as a code of laws); (faith in the Bible); (Judeo-Christian timeline); (prophecy as organizing  principle of the Bible); (Moses and the burning bush); (classic structure in Exodus)

Judgment of the dead (King Minos as judge); (Phaedo's divine comedy); (Last Judgment in Isaiah)

Julius Caesar (Shakespeare's tragedy and sacrifice) SEE CAESAR

Justice (retributive systems of prediction); (in Homer, eaters get eaten); (injustice arises with birth of politics); (John Rawls, A Theory of Justice)

Justinian (Christian Emperor destroys Plato's Academy)

K

Kalkhas (prophetic powers)

Keats, John ("Ode on a Grecian Urn"); ("On first looking into Chapman's Homer")

Keysey, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (cult fiction)

Kikones (in the Odyssey); (parallel with Ithaca)

King, Martin Luther (Letter from Birmingham Jail)

Kingship (Dante's On Monarchy)

Kleos (Greek term for fame or glory); (heroes with kleos name); (anti-kleos)

Klytemnestra (unfaithful wife of Agamemnon); (Orestia)

Knights (sir = sire); (a knight defends his lady's honor); (jousting tournament in Chrétien)

Knowledge (valued above worldly goods by Plato and early literates)

Koran (and World Trade Center terrorist attack); (as cult book)

Kronos (father of the gods in Plato's Euthyphro)

L

Labor (Heracles labors); (Achilles serves in Trojan War as paid laborer, like Heracles)

Lady of the Lake (Lancelot's upbringing)

Labyrinth (maze of prison of King Minor); (Socrates' imprisoned in ignorance of true reality)

Laertes, father of Odysseus (hero in the Odyssey)

Laestrygonians (in the Odyssey)

Lake (Lancelot of the Lake)

Lament (Thetis ritual lament for dead)

Lamp (literature as lamp lighting interior space)

Lancelot (Darwinian adultery with Guinevere); (The Knight of the Cart, classic structure); (suicide wish); (Lancelot opens his own tomb); (Lancelot and Odysseus compared); (Lancelot of the Lake); (evils of lust shown in Malory's Lancelot); (more Arthurian reading); (passivity and morality of portraits of Lancelot)

Language (languages as secret codes); (breakdown of language); (words have wings in Homer); (style in shield of Achilles); (Homer and natural or common speech); (Homer uses formulaic language); (histories of English language); (speech-making and rhetoric in early democratic Athens); (Socratic method and definition); (Stevenson's Ethics and Language, modern sophistry); (right to freedom of speech); (My Fair Lady); (nouns and verbs); (Pentecost); (Moses' difficulty with Hebrew language); (romance languages); (active and passive language)

Laocoon (Trojan doomed by Jupiter's plan of destiny in Virgil)

Lao Tze (and the ancient awakening of humanity)

Lascaux, France (cave painting)

Last Judgment (in Isaiah); (Jesus' prediction of the kingdom to come); (Jesus' prediction of the Son of Man); (Francis before the Sultan)

Last Supper (in Paul)

Latin (and the romance languages); (Latium, home of the Latins in the Aeneid)

Latini, Brunetto (hostility in Dante's Inferno);

Laughter (Thersites the joker becomes the butt in Homeric cycle of laughter)

Law (Moses as type of the law-giver); (legal wrangling in early democratic Athens); (Socrates trial as spiritual contest); (sophistry in law school); (Zeus' favor determined in trial by combat); (legal wrangling in classical Athens); (witch trial of Socrates); (The Laws in Plato's Crito); (law breakers in the Crito); (law as marketplace for behavior or conduct); (amendment of laws); (Judaism as a code of laws); (Christianity is not based in law codes); (Paul's imprisonments)

Legends (medieval term for writings of saint's lives)

Libation (drink offering in hero cults); (hero ritual offerings); (Holy Communion)

Liberal arts (term classifying non-science disciplines)

Library (Alexandrian library as Egyptian mortuary temple); (resources for study)

Lies (and story-telling in the Odyssey)

Light (in Genesis)

Linear B script (early Greek writing); (writing lost)

Lion (Heracles' victim)

Literacy (illiteracy of bards); (Plato and manuscript art require audiences to be literate); (writing and the great awakening of humanity); (Socrates as preliterate or transitional); (church and state in the European Middle Ages as literates and illiterates); (Jesus' story was oral); (common oral style of romances); (King Arthur as historic figure from a preliterate age)

Literary criticism (and ancient augury); (critics pretend to speak for poets); (Plato's spirit talks to Platonists); (teachers pretend to speak for poets) 

Literature (the study of literature); (representation of heroes in literature); (literature's problem of subjectivity); (four ages of history); (four ages of English language and literature); (popular literature and oral style); (book orientation of modern teachers of literature); (Iliadic or social vs Odyssean or psychological); (literature as mirror and lamp); (literature as Platonic or Aristotelian); (literature as moral or educative in Plato); (literature and philosophy); (Plato's Symposium as satire on literary scene in Athens); (Plato saw the power of literature); (Achilles as literary influence on Socrates) ; (Plato idealizes literature); (Greeks recognized powers of literature); (thought transmission is major theme of Hellenic literature); (Christianity as a literary practice);  (art as means to induce joy in Dante);

Livy, History of Rome (rape of the Sabine women) 

Locke, John (social contract theory)

Longus (Hellenistic novel Daphnis and Chloe)

Lord, Albert (Singer of Tales, on Homer as oral bard)

Lord (impersonation of the Lord in Jewish prophecy); (Palestine promised by the Lord to the Jews); (Christianity as a literary practice); (Paul as imitator of the Lord and Christ); (patriarchs  of Judaism); (Moses and the burning bush); (theme in Mark's gospel of non-recognition of Jesus' identity as the Lord)

Lotus Eaters (in Odyssey)

Love (literary romances model courtship); (power of the sex drive in The Knight of the Cart); (romantic lovers as animals engaged in sexual selection); (monogamy and celibacy arising in the Middle Ages); (range of romantic ideals in romances of the High Middle Ages and Renaissance) ; (chivalry and courtly love); (anger/love syndrome); (honor code in Chrétien de Troyes); (the birds and the bees); (mate selection); (Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love); (Francesca da Rimini in Dante's Inferno);

Luck (no luck in Homer)

Luke (Acts of the Apostles and Luke's gospel); (Holy Spirit, Elizabeth and Mary); (Pentecost story in Acts); (Homeric features in Luke's gospel and Acts)

Lyceum (Aristotle's school)

Lyre (music in hero rituals); (Cain the father of lyre-players)

Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth and Coleridge (recovering oral style in poetry)

Lysippus (bronze bust of Socrates); (bust of Alexander the Great)

M

Mabinogion (Arthur timeline)

Macbeth (Shakespeare's tragedy and sacrifice)

MacIntyre, Alasdair (recent books on moral traditions refuting sophistry and relativism)

Macedonia (Philip II and Alexander the Great)

Macrocosm (and microcosm)

Madame Bovary (becomes what she reads)

Magic (use of words to produce results); (magic as entertainment); (magic belongs to defeated people); (hunting magic); (magical features in Odysseus' story); (sympathetic magic); (cave art as charm); (victim presentation in Homeric songs); (magic in The Thousand and One Nights); (Circe witch in the Odyssey); (Hermes god of magic); (oracles and prophecies as magic stories) ; (dead come to life in sacrificial feast); (origin of word "Magic"); (magic defined as unbelievable practice); (Achilles' magic); (Homeric society is ruled by magic); (magic is limited by nature and culture in Homer); (magic as expression of desire); (literature that comes true); (Achilles' magic in Iliad); (Achilles' powers limited); (Patroklos' story is magical); (encouragement and intimidation); (Achilles' magical war cry); (breakdown of magic on the battlefield); (Hermes magical charm for Priam); (magic of the Odyssey); (Telemakhos calls the powerful father spirit); (hiding name for protection from magic) ; (magical incantation or singing)(Daedalus as magician); (Socrates as magician); (Houdini the magician); (Phaedo's divine comedy); (prophetic "signs" and magic); (prediction); (magic as common device in literary romances)

Make-believe (secularized art); (make-believe adventures of Odysseus in the Odyssey)

Makron (painting of ransoming of Achilles)

Malaria (deaths of Virgil and Dante)

Malice (failure of cerebral cortex in Dante's Inferno)

Malory, Sir Thomas, Le Morte D'Arthur (Darwinian adulterous triangle); (evils of lust shown in Malory); (morality of Lancelot)

Malvolio the Puritan (in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night)

Mammals (mammalian brain in humans); (mammalian emotions in Dante's Inferno);

Manuscripts (Age of Manuscripts); (manuscripts of Homer); (Plato's use of manuscript technology); (Platonic dialogue as major form of literature in Age of Manuscripts) (manuscript art requires audiences to be literate)

Marie de France (Breton romances)

Mark, gospel (theme of non-recognition of Jesus' identity as God)

Mark, husband of Iseult (romantic lovers go "back to nature")

Mark Antony (battle of Actium)

Markets (establish values by agreement); (law as marketplace for behavior or conduct)

Marriage (adultery in early literary romances); (romantic lovers as animals engaged in sexual selection); (monogamy and celibacy arising in the Middle Ages); (Guinevere's honor)

Mars (god of war)

Martin, Thomas R. (history of Greece); (Ancient Greece from Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times)  

Martyrs, Christian (latter day heroes); (heroic choice); (Stephen stoned in conflict with priests of the temple); (trial of Stephen); (protestant Book of Martyrs); (persecution against Paul?)

Mary, mother of Jesus (Michelangelo's Pieta); (Elizabeth and Mary in Luke's gospel); (Notre Dame at Chartres);

Masks (in Hellenic tragedy); (Socrates sees beneath masks worn by hypocrites and pretenders in their social roles); (Athenian culture exposed by Socrates as masquerade); (death mask of Agamemnon)

Materialism (as a coping strategy); (materialism emerging in early modern worldnoted by Dante);

Matthew and the Angel, Caravaggio

McKellen, Ian (performs Odyssey)

McLuhan, Marshall (The Gutenberg Galaxy)

Medicine (Hermes god of medicine in the Odyssey); (augury and medicine); (faith healing); (Asclepius, Hellenist god of healing); (Hippocrates and Hellenist medicine)

Medicine man (possessed seer in traditional society)

Medium (entranced seer); (performer in hero ritual); (prehistoric poet as medium for spirit of food animal); (Phaedo as enraptured performer of Socrates); (impersonation of spirits in prophecy)

Meleager (story in the Iliad); (statue); (cursed by mother); (story of Meleager affects Patroklos but not Achilles)

Meletus, accuser of Socrates (put to death)

Memory (mythology as the remembered past); (Muses and memory); (mnemonic devices or aids to memory); (the Age of Memory); (popular literature and oral style); (Homer's oral style); (writing and computer technology help us to forget); (early Christian hymns)

Menelaus (King of Argos, husband of Helen of Troy)

Mercury (messenger to Aeneas in Virgil)

Mermaids (first mermaid, Thetis)

Metaphoric action or allegory (in Homer); (Plato's parable of the cave, an extended metaphor)

Meter (in Homeric songs)

Michelangelo, art (illustrations for Genesis); ("Creation of Eve"); (self portrait); (Moses); (Biago); (Charon's boat); (Pieta of St Peter's); (Jeremiah)(Jonah); (Isaiah)

Microcosm (and macrocosm)

Middle Ages in Europe (divided into church and state, or literates and illiterates); (division of vernacular and Latin languages)  (disorientation in civilization of the High Middle Ages); (monogamy and celibacy arising in the Middle Ages); (feudal codes of social conduct in the Middle Ages); (patronage of art in the Middle Ages); (range of romantic ideals in romances of the Middle Ages) ; (development of active motor description in Middle Ages);  (development of free will in Middle Ages); (presence of God and mysticism in Middle Ages); (disappearance of God in the Middle Ages);

Miller, Geoffrey (The Mating Mind)

Milton, John (example of Modern English and Age of Books); (Satan as hero of Paradise Lost)

Mind (Alkinoos or good-mind in the Odyssey); (dualism of consciousness); (life of the mind is immortal); (Socrates' mind lives in his students); (mental activity is infectious, copied); (proper care and feeding of your mind); (mind, soul and consciousness); (Szasz, The Meaning of Mind); (Miller, The Mating Mind); (mind and body problem in modern science) See also, brain.

Minerva (Roman Athena, in Raphael's "Knight's Dream")

Minoan civilization (Crete, prior to coming of Hellenes); (ancient Thesean festival at Athens may commemorate overthrow of Minoan rule)

Minos (first Zeus-Man on Crete and mythological Judge of the Dead)

Minotaur (myth in Plato); (Burne-Jones, "Theseus and the Minotaur"); (Taurus)

Miracles (witnessing Jesus in Acts); (Peter's miracles); (Pentecost); (legends written of saints)

Mirror (literature as mirror)

Mnemonic devices (aids to memory); (not used in early Christian literature)

Mnemosyne (or memory, mother of the muses); (the Lady of the Lake)

Modern romances (types of literary romances)

Monastic orders (Pythagorean sect as forerunner)

Monopoly (restraint of free market conditions)

Monotheism (demotion of the spirits)

Moral (moral meaning in the Bible and in Dante);

Morality (Socrates' daemon); (Golden Rule, practical instruction on behavior); (Homer blamed by critics for immorality); (literature as moral or educative in Plato's theory of art); (Stevenson's Ethics and Language, modern sophistry); (Alasdair MacIntyre's books on traditional morality); (Socrates and the Golden Rule); (David Gauthier, Morals by Agreement); (John Rawls, A Theory of Justice); (Christian morality in Paul); (church attacks sin or vice, bodily instincts); (moralized romance in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight); (morality of Virgil's Aeneas);

Moses (Michelangelo's image); (and the Promised Land); (Theseus as Athenian parallel to Moses); (Palestine promised by the Lord); (prophecy as organizing  principle of the Bible); (the "call" of the prophet); (Moses and the burning bush); (speech problem); (classic mystery structure in Exodus); (sensory or passive character description)

Motor description (and sensory description);

Motor nervous system (sensory and motor drives);

Mothers (and children in Homer); (mother curses Meleager); (ancestry is predictive); (Oedipus complex); (Notre Dame at Chartres);

Mountains (associated with gods and spirits)

Multiculturalism (in Genesis); (predicted in Genesis); (destruction of culture); (Alexandria as multicultural city); (Zeus-Ammon); (Socrates' Athens is not a unified cult); (multicultural structure of classical civilization); (contribution of the Greeks);

Murder (of suitors and maids by psychopath in the Odyssey); (heroes used to avoid responsibility for killing); (Clitus murdered by Alexander)

Muse (inspiration of poetry); (Homer's Muse); (Muse's point of view in Iliad); (recurring story in Homer); (Muses, music and memory); (Plato's Academy as a temple of the Muses); (Holy Spirit as Christian Muse); (sensory or passive character description)

Museum, house of the Muses; (library burned by zealots); (Alexander's body in museum); (Plato's Academy as a museum); (Plato's Socrates museum)

Music (of the lyre in hero rituals); (the Muses and music)

Mycenae (Bronze Age city); (Schliemann excavation); (Agamemnon's city in the Argive plain); (Mycenaean Age or Bronze Age)

My Fair Lady (Broadway musical adaptation of Pygmalion)

Myrmidons (Achilles loyal to followers)

Myron ("The Discuss Thrower")

Mystery stories (solving the mystery of the Odyssey)

Mystics (mystical sense of further reality); (Euclides mystic follower of Socrates); (Eastern mysticism in the Phaedo); (disappearance of God in the Middle Ages); (Dante as mystic);

Mythology (origin in poetry); (mythology as story gathering); (Alexandria foundation myth)(Socratic dialogues as foundation myth for Plato's Academy); (legends or stories collected about saints' miracles); (Francis stories and images as foundation myth for Franciscan shrine at Assisi); (Aeneid as foundation myth of Roman Empire)

N

Names (Odysseus as "Noman"); (kleos names for heroes)

Napoleon (imagination rules the world); (portrait by Ingres)

Nation (no nationalism in Homer)

Native Americans (defeated magic); (sacred burial grounds)

Nature (natural limits on magical powers); (limits magic in Homer); (Achilles magic limited by nature); (nature as scene of relentless killing in Homer); (nature/art duality); (poetry as natural vs transcendental); (romantic lovers go "back to nature"); (human bodies conditioned by nature in the wild); (sin or vice as human instinct adapted for pre-civilized living conditions); (the Green Knight represents nature in Gawain and the Green Knight)

Nebuchadnezzar (Babylonian conqueror of Judah) 

Necromantics (Hellenic prophets of the dead); (The Knight of the Cart, classic structure); (Lakes); (Lake Acheron and Lake Avernus)

Neoclassicism, England (dates); (Milton and Dryden)

Neolithic period (sacrifices could be offered to human dead in Neolithic ceremony); (hero ritual)

Neoplatonists (followers of Socrates)

Neoptolemus (asserted son of Achilles);

Nervous system (sensory and efferent);

Nestor (old man in Iliad)

News media (in entertainment and other commercial businesses)

New Testament, see Bible.

Niobe (story of death of Niobe's children); (image of slaughter of Niobids); (Odysseus' slaughter of the suitors compared)

Noah (Noah's Flood story); (patriarchs  of Judaism)

Non-conformism (Socrates' peculiar daemon); (non-conformism in literature)

Nostradamus (ambiguous predictions)

Novels (the world's first novels); (Iliadic vs Odyssean); (social vs psychological)

Nudity (Biago censors Michelangelo for nudity); (nudity of Hellenic heroes); (nude figures in Greek art)

Numbers (studied by Pythagoreans)

Nut (and Geb, Egyptian gods)

O

Obituary (tradition of the death story)

Object (subject/object duality); (active and passive description)

Obscenity (traditional ground for censorship)

Octavius (battle of Actium); (end of Hellenistic Age)

Odyssean literature (vs Iliadic literature)

Odysseus (story to Phaeacians); (magical features in story to Phaeacians); (hunter fleeing with the spoils); (Odysseus as war  victim); (punishment of Odysseus); (Odysseus and the Cyclopes); (Odysseus and Cain); (lifts plague in the Iliad); (quells rebellion of Achaeans at Troy); (on mission to Achilles); (as father figure to Achilles); (return of dead Odysseus to Ithaca)' (revealed to Telemakhos by Athena); (as daemon); (disguised as an old beggar); (Odysseus' name means child of anger); (hero cults present the dead); (Odysseus as trickster and magician); (discovery of Odysseus scar); (pretends to be Aithon, prince of Crete); (image as bowman); (cult of Odysseus); (looks and acts like a god or daemon); (as slaughtered animal); (as personified Death); (Odysseus as father); (Odysseus as daemon called by Telemakhos); (disguise as beggar); (as liar); (make-believe adventures); (Odysseus as ideal performance hero); (bends truth when offering gifts to Achilles) ; (Odysseus as prototype sage hero); (heroes used to avoid responsibility for killing); (Odysseus as model for Milton's Satan); (Odysseus' thinking process); (Lancelot and Odysseus compared)

Odyssey (quest story in Homeric songs); (hunter fleeing with the spoils); (appeals to sympathy); (relation to the Iliad); (story goes beyond death into the afterlife); (the suitors); (the mystery of the Odyssey); (cattle theme in the Odyssey); (Odyssey as story of the coming of Death); (solving the mystery of the Odyssey); (the Odyssey as fairy tale); (make-believe adventures of Odysseus); (pairing with the Iliad); (basis for false genealogies in classical and Hellenistic eras)

Oedipus (story); (truth of prophecy); (Oedipus the King, Sophocles); Oedipus complex and Freud); (riddle of Sphinx); (lived at the time of the Trojan War)

Olympic Games (Archaic Greece); (beginning date); (Olympic sports in funeral games in Iliad); (nude runners)

Omniscience (in Iliad); (in Luke's gospel and Acts)

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Ken Keysey (cult fiction) 

Ong, Walter (Orality and Literacy

Opera (Wager's Tristan und Isolde)

Opinion (public opinion versus expert opinion in Plato) 

Oracles (Hellenic belief in fortune telling); (Kalkhas, Apollo's oracle); (Oedipus story); (impersonation of spirits in prophecy); (ambiguity in oracles' prophecies)

Oral literature, see literacy.

Oratory or public speaking (development in early democratic Athens); (Agesilaus works up the troops for war)

Orestes (and Telemakhos)

Original sin (in traditional views of Genesis)

Orpheus and Eurydice (myth of death and rebirth); (Orpheus as pre-Homeric creator of Orphic cult)

Osama bin Laden (attack on World Trade Center and Pentagon); (effect of terrorist attack on literature)

Ovid (Metamorphoses or changing shapes)

P

Paleolithic period (cave painting); (story-telling in prehistory)

Palestine (territory promised by the Lord to the Jews)

Pallas Athena (worship established by Theseus)

Panathenaea (all-Athenian sacrifice festival)

Paris (image by Ingres); (choice of Paris); (kills Achilles); (rape of Helen); (image in geometric art); (image by Ingres); (chooses life over sacrifice)

Parody (parody of romance in Chaucer's Tale of Sir Topas)

Parry, Milman (and Albert Lord on Homer as oral bard)

Parthenon (dates); (Athena's statue); (Socrates as statue carver)

Passover (festival backdrop for the story of the sacrifice of Jesus); (Holy Communion and Passover)

Patriarchs (as shaman family)

Patroklos (same name as Cleopatra); (sympathy with victims); (substitute for Achilles); (ashes to be buried with Achilles); (story is magical for Achilles); (foolishness); (Achilles imitates death); (Achilles sympathy with Patroklos); (funeral games); (hero spirit or daemon of Patroklos); (possesses Achilles); (story of Meleager affects Patroklos but not Achilles)

Patrons (patronage of art in Middle Ages)

Paul (spiritual conversion of Paul); (hostility toward fellow Christian preachers); (general information on Paul); (dates for Paul's epistles); (first to describe Holy Communion); (Holy Communion as Paul's prophecy); (1 Corinthians); (Paul as imitator of the Lord and Christ); (appeals to Hellenists); (Paul and Isaiah) ; (Last Judgment in Paul); (living in fear of Doomsday); (Paul's Thessalonian congregation); (Paul's use of prophecy); (founder of churches at Achaea, Athens & Thessaly); (vision of Christ on road to Damascus); (Rembrandt's brooding Paul); (Rembrandt's imitation of Paul); (another Paul by Rembrandt); (Augustine's conversion to Christianity through Paul); (prophets of New Testament); (Christian morality in Paul); (Paul's "conversion"); (Paul's imprisonments); (persecution against Paul?); (sensory or passive character description); (Paul's idea of Adam and Christ);

Pausanias, Description of Greece (Cadmus and Thebes)

Pearl Poet (genetics in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight)

Peisistratus, tyrant (and Homer texts); (sons expelled from Athens)

Peleus (father of Achilles); (Peleus and Thetis page); (despised by Zeus)

Peloponnesian War (dates); (end of Athenian empire and expensive arts)

Penelope (in Greek art); (suitors in Odyssey); (fails to recognize Odysseus); (Penelope dreams); (lost in her dreams); (example of virtuous wife); (as fairy tale figure); (as object of Oedipal fantasy); (pose as grieving widow)

Pentagon (attack of Osama bin Laden)

Pentecost (in Book of Acts)

Percival (disappearance of God in the Middle Ages);

Performing art (Homeric song performance developed from Hellenic hero ceremony); (bard must meet audience expectations); (reading or performing Homer); (rhapsodes perform Homer); (popular literature and oral style); (Odysseus as ideal performance hero); (killing as heroic performance); (literary criticism as performance)  (Lyrical Ballads and recovery of oral style in poetry); (rhapsodes recite Homer's words); (decline of Greek theater); (re-runs invented); (closet drama and early children's theater); (Plato disposes with the physical theater); (performing Plato's Crito)(Phaedo performs Socrates); (acting the part of a philosopher); (Christian acting); (acting in the Book of Acts); (performing Paul's epistles)

Pericles, Athenian ruler (dates)

Perloff, Marjorie (on literary studies today)

Persecution (by cults); (Paul's persecution and "conversion"); (persecution or lawbreaking of Paul?)

Persephone and Demeter (classic mystery structure)

Perseus Project web site (for classics)

Persian War (date); (magic in Persian War); (Alexander conquers Persia)

Personality (multiple personality disorder in Odyssey); (heroic personality to avoid personal blame); (Socrates sees beneath masks worn by hypocrites and pretenders in their social roles); (Dante's Commedia is self-image);

Personification (Odysseus as Death); (personification of death)

Peter (miracles); (prophets of New Testament); (in the story of Pentecost)

Phaeacians (in the Odyssey); (King Alkinoos or good-mind)

Phaedo (follower of Socrates); (Pythagorean story teller of Plato's dialogue, the Phaedo); (enraptured medium for the voice of Socrates); (Phaedo's divine comedy); (books about the Phaedo); (sensory or passive character description)

Phemios (bard at Ithaca in Odyssey); (spared by Odysseus)

Phidias (sculptor of Athena's image)

Philemon (Paul's letter dealing with slavery)

Philip II of Macedon 

Philosophy (cult of Socrates); (taught by Aristotle); (taught by Plato); (the birth of Greek philosophy); (dualism as bedrock of western thought); (philosophers classified as Platonists or Aristotelians); (philosophy as a branch of literature); (philosopher as creature of writing); (philosophy = love of wisdom); (philosophy vs. religion); (complexity of thought arising from politics); (Plato's parable of the cave); (followers of Socrates); (philosophy as practice for death in the Phaedo); (courage and temperance of the philosopher); (acting the part of a philosopher)

Phoenicia (birthplace of Europa)

Phoenician alphabet (borrowed by Hellenes); (introduced by Cadmus)

Phoenix (on mission to Achilles); (teaches heroic songs); (as father figure); (Euthyphro's sacrifice and praise recall  Phoenix's gifts and fair words to control the spirits); (story of Meleager affects Patroklos but not Achilles)

Phthia (Achilles' homeland, Thrace); (Phthia in Socrates' dream) 

Phyrro of Elis (founder of the Skeptic school) 

Pied Piper (music controls plague)

Piety (in Euthyphro); (pious man Aeneas); (and survival of the fittest); (Sir Gawain and the Green Knight); (piety and friendship with the gods); (gods became wrathful for impiety)

Pireus (port of Athens, place of piracy and commerce)

Pirates (in early novels); (Homer's Achaeans are pirates); (classical Athens as an Achaean pirate state); (killing Socrates makes the seas safe once more for pirates); (Pireus)

Pity (and fear in Aristotle's theory of art)

Plague (in the Iliad); (control of plague); (caused by Agamemnon); (plague from unburied bodies in Antigone); (faith healing)

Plath, The Bell Jar (cult fiction)

Plato (founder of The Academy); (dialogues as possession), (Ion and the Homeric rhapsode); (compared to Homer); (Euthyphro); (founder of Platonic branch of philosophy); (approach to literature and Greek tragedy); (Plato as artist); (disposes of the physical theater); (Platonic dialogue); (Plato and manuscript art require audiences to be literate); (Plato's theory of art); (ideas or forms); (idealist theory in art); (Homeric conflict versus Platonic conflict); (Socrates' last days summarized); (Euthyphro); (dialogues against sophists); (Timaeus); (Plato's Socrates museum) (Symposium as satire on literary scene in Athens); (Apology); (the origin and early history of academic life); (Use of Socratic dialogues to promote the Academy); (influence of Pythagoreans); (Athenian charter to the Academy); (Academy as a supper club or cafe); (academic freedom); (Plato's death and burial); (Plato's spirit talks to Platonists); (dates of dialogues unknown); (Platonic education); (Plato saw the power of literature and theater); (Plato's satire on democracy); (Crito); (differentiating Plato from Socrates); (Phaedo); (narrative orientation of the dialogues); (Plato idealizes literature); (Plato invents the modern hero); (narrative strategy of the Symposium); (Plato as poet)

Play (play figures and modern heroes); (Genesis as fantasy game); (child's pretending and play); (make-believe adventures of Odysseus in the Odyssey); (impersonation of spirits in prophecy)

Plutarch (life of Alexander the Great); (collector of stories); (sensory or passive character description)

Poetic justice (in Shakespearian tragedy)

Poetics (of Aristotle); (Aristotle's Poetics)

Poetry (made up or invented by poet, as opposed to mythology or history or work of bards); (Homeric poetry); (poetry classified as natural or transcendental); (largely displaced by prose when writing was invented); (Socrates charged with poetry); (Plato as poet)

Point of view (omniscience in Iliad); (episodes reflect Achilles' point of view); (external versus internal perspectives); (spiritual versus political perspectives)

Polis (Hellenic city-state); (structure of classical civilization); (Socrates as polite hero) 

Politics (in early democratic Athens); (Plato's Academy as think tank for politics); (structure of classical civilization); (Theseus father of Athenian politics); (Pallas Athena or political Athena); (complexity of thought arising from politics); (political Socrates vs  spiritual Socrates); (spiritual values over political values in Antigone); (Plato's satire on democracy); (the ancient city); (Virgil and Dante as propagandists for Roman Empire)

Polybius (on the gods of the Romans)

Polyphemus (Cyclopes); (prophecy); (curse)

Polytheism (multicultural religion)

Popper, Karl (The Open Society and Its Enemies)

Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, James Joyce (cult fiction)

Portuguese (and romance languages)

Poseidon (and Athena as first gods at Athens)

Possession, spiritual (Hellenic hero religion); (possession of the cult); (possession of artist or shaman); (inspiration); (Homer's Muse); (singer possessed by hero in hero rituals); (poet possessed by spirit of sacrificed food animal); (possession of singer in Iliad); (possession in the Iliad and the Odyssey); (Achilles and Telemakhos as possessed); (possession is governed by actor's situation)

Poussin, Nicholas ("The Shepherds of Arcadia")

Power of blame (satire)

Power of entertainment; (magic and literature regarded as entertainment)

Power of memory (Homer); (Homeric Songs); (past is present and contains the future in the Homeric songs); (rhapsodes perform Homeric songs)

Power of play (Shakespeare); (child's pretending and play)

Power of revelation (Dante); (major illustration of literary power in west is Christendom); (faith in the Bible); (Aeneid as revelation of Rome's divine origins);  (arts as means to induce joy in Dante);

Power of thought (Plato); (Socratic dialogues as promotion for Plato's Academy); (Socrates as idealized teacher) (Plato saw the power of literature and theater); (Greeks recognized powers of literature)

Powers of Literature (copyright and fair use); (cost); (course instructor); (course objective); (course outline); (course textbooks); (level of difficulty); (technical information for best viewing); weirdness of powers; (Plato saw the power of literature and theater); (Greeks recognized powers of literature); (major illustration in west is Christendom); (faith in the Bible);  (arts as means to induce joy in Dante);

Prayer (magic in the Iliad); (Achilles first prayer); (prayer for evil); (power of prayer as spiritual exercise); (Achilles second prayer); (Francis miracle of the thirsty man)

Preaching (Christianity as a literary practice); (Francis' preaching); (economics in original Christianity according to Acts); (Hellenist preachers in Acts); (Stephen)

Predictions (of prophets); (oracles); (Nostradamus' ambiguity)

Prejudice (no nationalism, racism or religious prejudice in Homer); (against Socrates because of The Clouds)

Priam (King of Troy, father figure to Achilles); (hated by Zeus); (line of descent); (ransoming of Hektor); (Hektor's funeral); (fortunes and misfortunes sent from Zeus); (extermination of Priam's line of descent)

Presentation (history traditionally presents the past); (hero cults present the dead)

Primogeniture (see inheritance)

Private (public/private duality)

Prophecy (Teiresias' prophecies to Odysseus); (stories come true); (Hellenic belief in oracles and prophecies); (based on past or history of victims); (Kalkhas the prophet); (Kalkhas and Teiresias); (prophets of Israel); (Plato's Euthyphro as comic prophet); (necromantic prophets of the dead); (Hellenic and Jewish prophecy) ; (Jeremiah the prophet); (gods would be wrathful because of impiety); (depiction of the prophet in the Book of Jonah); (comparison of Socrates and Jesus); (Jesus as prophet); (various conceptions of Jesus); (revisions to Isaiah's manuscript); (Holy Communion as Paul's prophecy); (Paul and Isaiah); (Last Judgment in Isaiah); (Paul fulfills Isaiah's international prophecy); (living in fear of Doomsday); (Jesus' prediction of the kingdom to come); (Paul's use of prophecy); (prophecy as organizing  principle of the Bible); (major and minor prophets of the Jewish Bible); (the "call" of the prophet); (prophets of New Testament); Truth (of the Bible); (Holy Spirit, Elizabeth and Mary in Luke's gospel); (Jesus' baptism by the prophet); (Pentecost); (Moses and the burning bush); (prophetic "signs"); (prophetic prediction); (ambiguity in oracles' prophecies); (Nostradamus); (Jesus' prediction of the Son of Man); (prophetic eloquence); (how prophetic cults grow); (how prophets maintain cult membership); (Aeneas as prophet of  Roman Empire)

Prose (came into fashion with invention of writing)

Protagoras, Plato (Socrates descends into a hell of Sophists)

Psychogogues (Hellenic soul charmers) 

Psychology (mental source of inspiration in modern art); (guilt in Homer); (psychology as predetermined by ancestry); (madness of Agamemnon); (Agamemnon's anxiety or inferiority complex); (multiple personality disorder in Telemakhos); (Hitchcock's Psycho); (paranoid psychosis of Telemakhos); (insanity of heroic or daemonic possession); (consciousness as external/internal dualism); (Homeric conflict versus Platonic conflict); (Soviet psychiatry)(Epictetus and cognitive psychology); (self-improvement); (mind, soul and consciousness); (Szasz, The Meaning of Mind); (Dante's Commedia is self-analysis);

Public (public/private duality); (public motives of the hero to avoid disgrace or shame); (public opinion versus expert opinion in Plato) 

Punishment (by spirits in Homer); (justice in Homer); (punishment for sins of our fathers)

Pythagoras (Pythagorean cult visited by Plato); (Aristophanes' Clouds and destruction of Pythagorean cult); (Phaedo, Pythagorean story teller); (goal to escape from cycle of reincarnation); (acquires wisdom as visitor to Trophonius' hole and other hero shrines)

Pythons (Hellenic engastromiths or "in-the-belly speakers")

Q

Quest (form of story); (quest story form in Homeric songs); (quest of Telemakhos for his father); (Sir Gawain and the Green Knight); (quest structure in literary romances)

R

Race (no racism in Homer)

Radio (and broadcast media)

Ramesses III (and battle with Sea Peoples)

Ransom (ransom theme in the Iliad)

Rape (Helen of Troy); (expansion of cult of Zeus through rape); (rape of Europa by Zeus); (rape of the Sabine women) 

Raphael (Knight's Dream); (The School of Athens); (Socrates in School); (Diogenes in School); (The School of Athens); (image map for The School); (Epicurus in School); (Zeno in School); (The Graces); (St. George and the Dragon)

Rawls, John (A Theory of Justice)

Reading (reading or performing Homer); (importance of rereading); (literature's problem of subjectivity) (illiteracy of bards); (Plato and manuscript art require audiences to read); (Socrates as preliterate); (church and state in the European Middle Ages as literates and illiterates)

Realism (and Aristotelian theory of art)

Reality (inner and outer); (Socrates imprisoned in ignorance of true reality)

Reason (as Athena)

Rejuvenation (on Circe's island); (the Odysseus-spirit rejuvenated in appearance); (avoidance of reincarnation in the Phaedo); (Phaedo's divine comedy)

Religion (gods of official state religion); (origin in poetry); (Christianity and Hellenism); (no religious bigotry in Homer); (religion vs science); (philosophy vs. religion); (classic character type of the religious hypocrite); (right of freedom of religion); (religion as a branch of literature) ; (Christianity as a literary practice); (divisions among Christians); (religion models ways of life); (religion as the art that still retains spirits); (Queen of the Arts); Truth (of the Bible); (schism between Judaism and Christianity); (Roman Empire as cult of Aeneas); (heaven and hell as places in the brain);

Rembrandt ("Aristotle with a bust of Homer")(Rembrandt's brooding Paul); (Rembrandt's imitation of Paul); (another Paul by Rembrandt) 

Renaissance literature (poetic inspiration from profane sources); (range of romantic ideals in romances of the Renaissance) 

Repetition (of stories in Homer); (of language in Homer)

Representation (history traditionally presents the past); (hero cults present the dead); (representation of heroes in literature); (Phaedo represents Socrates)

Reptiles (reptilian brain in humans); (Raphael's St. George and the Dragon); (reptilian compulsions in Dante's Inferno); see serpent

Republic, Plato (first literary utopia or "no where")

Reputation (Aristophanes' Clouds and smearing of Socrates' reputation)

Re-run (invention of re-runs, oldies or classics)

Responsibility (avoided through blaming heroes)

Resurrection of the dead (in the Odyssey); (in prehistoric story-telling); (Socrates as artist escaping death)  (Socrates still lives in his cult)

Revenge (of Odysseus and Telemakhos); (Hektor and Antinoos as victims of revenge)

Rhapsodes (performers of Homer in classical times); (Plato's Ion performs Homer)

Rhetoric (development in early democratic Athens)

Rock and roll (band cults)

Roland (Song of Roland)

Romance (generally); (Chrétien de Troyes); (The Knight of the Cart, classic structure); (romance languages); (common literary features of romances); (types of literary romances); (power of the sex drive in The Knight of the Cart); (romantic lovers as animals engaged in sexual selection); (romantic lovers go "back to nature"); (moralized romance in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight); (moralized romance in Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene); (range of romantic ideals in romances of the High Middle Ages and Renaissance); (chivalry and courtly love); (anger/love syndrome) ; (Sir knight = Sire knight); (jousting tournament in Chrétien); (mate selection in Chretien); (the birds and the bees); (Arthurian timeline); (Greek romances); (parody of romance in Chaucer's Tale of Sir Topas); (Cervantes, Don Quixote); (Francesca da Rimini in Dante's Inferno);

Roman Empire (Gibbon's Decline and Fall); (literacy in Roman Empire); (Christians blamed for fall of Rome); (romance languages); (Aeneid as cult foundation myth of Roman Empire); (Dante's disappointing emperor)

Romanesque (style in architecture); (Romanesque or romance languages)

Rome (rape of the Sabine women); (destroys the second temple in Jerusalem); (Arch of Titus); (romance languages); (Aeneid as cult foundation myth of Roman Empire); (Carthage, Dido and Aeneas' survivor syndrome); (Hannibal, the Scipios and the Punic Wars); (Polybius on the gods of the Romans); (Pope Boniface VIII Dante's Inferno);

Romanticism, 19th century (inspiration in personal imagination)

Rousseau, Jean-Jaques (social contract theory)

Rumanian (and romance languages)

S

Sabines (rape of the Sabine women) 

Sacrifice (of animals in prehistory); (ritual sacrifice of animals and poetry); (Teiresias episode in the Odyssey); (sacrifice as the core idea of story telling); (animal sacrifice offered to human dead in Neolithic Age) ; (Cain and Abel); (Zeus gives up his son Sarpedon); (animal name-calling as parody of sacrifice); (sacrifice of animals associated with story-telling); (Panathenaea or all-Athenian sacrifice festival); (human sacrifice)

Sacrilege and blasphemy (in culture wars); (archaeology)

Sage (Odysseus as prototype of sage hero); (wise men of the ancient axial period)

Saints (original Christian commune in Jerusalem called saints); (legends written of saints)

Salinger, Catcher in the Rye (cult fiction)

Salvation (and disillusion with literature); (immortalization through art); (animal victims saved through story telling); (Christian salvation through action)

Samuel (early Jewish prophet); (in Saul and the witch of Endor)

Sarpedon (death cannot be avoided); (line of descent)

Satan (as hero of Paradise Lost); (free will and Genesis)

Satire (Athenian culture exposed by Socrates as masquerade); (Plato's Symposium as satire on literary scene in Athens)

Saxons (Arthurian timeline)

Scapegoat (Thersites); (possession by hero to avoid responsibility for murder); (inappropriate blaming) 

Scenes (in Homer)

Schliemann, Heinrich, archaeologist (dates); (archaeological dig for Homer as parody of hero ritual); (Sophie Schliemann wears the "jewels of Helen"); (treasures from Troy)

School (Plato's Academy); (followers of Socrates) (teachers of arts); (schools of Socratics); (cyber-school)

Science (and mystical sense of reality); (science vs religion); (Plato's interest in science and pseudo-science)

Science fiction (Arthur C. Clark and the satellite); (and the take over of humanity by technological inventions)

Scientific method (used by modern historians)

Scientist (term)

Scipio Africanus (senior and junior in the Punic wars);

Sculpture (Michelangelo's Moses); (Socrates as sculptor); (Socrates' Graces at the Parthenon); (Daedalus makes statues move) ; ("Pygmalion and Galatea"); (motion in Hellenic sculpture); ("Dying Gaul," Hellenistic statue)

Sea (associated with chaos)

Sea Peoples (attack on Egypt cir. 1170 BC)

Secularism (in Hellenic culture); (secularized art); (secular humanism in Plato and the Renaissance); (Homer as secularist of hero ritual ceremony)(classic literature separates from the prophet and spirits); (spirits removed in medieval story-telling);

Self-help (improving the mind); Dante as the subject of the Commedia)

Sennacherib (siege of Jerusalem);

Sensory description (and motor description);

Serpent (in Genesis); (blaming the serpent to avoid personal responsibility); see reptiles

Service and servants (good servants in the Odyssey)

Seven Against Themes (lost Hellenic song of heroes)

Sex (Peleus and Thetis); (Zeus begets sons on mortal women everywhere); (Amazons fought Zeus-men in the original battle of the sexes); (nude figures in Greek art); (Telemakhos incestuous desire for Penelope); (slaughter of the chamber maids in the Odyssey); (double standard of sexual morality in the Odyssey); (males brawl to the death over women in Homer's portrait of Zeus-men); (women in Paul); (Francis and Clare); (common themes of sex and violence in literary romances); (literary romances model courtship for young people); (power of the sex drive in The Knight of the Cart); (romantic lovers as animals engaged in sexual selection); (monogamy and celibacy arising in the Middle Ages); (moralized romance in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight); (range of romantic ideals in romances of the High Middle Ages and Renaissance) ; (chivalry and courtly love); (anger/love syndrome); (Sir knight = Sire knight); (honor code in Chrétien de Troyes); ( Chrétien's women love winners); (jousting tournament in Chrétien)(Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love); (Darwin, The Descent of Man); (Francesca da Rimini in Dante's Inferno)

Sexual selection (mate selection in Chretien); (the birds and the bees)

Shakespeare (and the show biz); (profane inspiration); (sacrifice in Macbeth and Julius Caesar); (Hamlet based on Telemakhos in the Odyssey); (Malvolio the Puritan in Twelfth Night); (Twelfth Night as comic Odyssey) ; (Troilus and Cressida, farcical treatment of Troy story); (Hamlet as Odyssean revenge tragedy); (A Midsummer Night's Dream and Plutarch's Theseus)

Shakespeare Question (who wrote Shakespeare?)

Shakespearean romances (types of literary romances)

Shaman (patriarchs of the Jews as a shaman family)

Shame (and the public motives of heroes to avoid disgrace) (Homer's warriors motivated by shame or fame) 

Shaw, George Bernard (Pygmalion)

Shelley, Percy ("To a Sky-Lark")

Ship of fools (contemplative vision of medieval society)

Show business (audience loss of faith)

Shaman (possessed seer in traditional society)

Sherlock Holmes (awakens Dr. Watson)

Scheherazade (magic in "The Thousand and One Nights")

Signs of the prophet (Moses); (faith healing as sign); (prediction as a sign)

Simon the Cobbler (follower of Socrates)

Sin or vice (human instincts adapted for pre-civilized living conditions)

Sirens (in the Odyssey)

Simile (favorite figure of speech in Homer); (use of simile in Homer)

Simulation of reality (art under disillusion); (make-believe adventures of Odysseus in the Odyssey)

Sin (original sin in traditional readings of Genesis); (punishment for sins of our fathers); (idea of original sin developed in Middle Ages);

Skamandros or Xanthos River (as image of time)

Skeptics (followers of Socrates); (Phyrro of Ellis)

Slander (defamation of the hero); (Griselda, Suzanna, good women and slandered brides)

Slavery (buyer control over marketplace); (Philemon, Paul's letter dealing with slavery); (Dr. King Letter Written from a Birmingham Jail); (classic structure in Exodus)

Society (is ruled by magic); (social criticism in Platonic type literature); (Thersites the social critic at Troy); (Plato's mad world of Socrates); (Athenian culture exposed by Socrates as masquerade); (social criticism in classical Athens); (social contract theory); (John Rawls, A Theory of Justice); (romantic lovers retreat "back to nature" from society); (human bodies conditioned by nature in the wilds); (disorientation in civilization of the High Middle Ages); (sin or vice as human instinct adapted for pre-civilized living conditions); (feudal codes of social conduct in Middle Ages);  (Aeneid as basis of Roman Empire)

Socrates (trial dates); (nonconformist); (daemon of morality); (spirit of philosophy); (dead hero-spirit of Platonic dialogues); (accused of witchcraft); (bust); (Socrates as sculptor); (as hero does not stimulate pity or fear); (Socrates as preliterate); (Socrates as Thersites updated); (Socrates' death is not the end of the story); (Socratic method); (Socrates' last days summarized); (Socrates' daemon or divine sign); (Socrates as free thinker); (Socrates and Jesus); (Socrates charged with poetry); (Socrates sees beneath masks worn by hypocrites and pretenders); (Athenian culture exposed by Socrates as masquerade); (Xenophon's Memories of Socrates); (expulsion from paradise); (Plato's Socrates museum); (Socrates as idealized teacher); (Aristophanes' Clouds and smearing of Socrates' reputation); (witch trial of Socrates); (prosecutors of Socrates); (political Socrates vs  spiritual Socrates); (two Socrates's); (differentiating Plato from Socrates); (Socrates' students); (Socrates in Raphael's "School of Athens"); (heroic choice of Socrates); (Socrates and the Golden Rule); (Socrates as polite hero); (bust by Lysippus); (the defining teacher); (Socrates as artist); (Socrates as sculptor); (Socrates as magician); (Socrates survives death in his cult); (Socrates is to be seen only in art); (even Hermes was impressed by Socrates' speech); (David's "The Death of Socrates"); (character of Socrates); (comparison of Socrates and Jesus); (sensory or passive character description)

Solomon (builder of the first temple of the Jews)

Solon (Athenian political reformer)

Song (in hero worship); (Homeric bard sings); (songs cure plague); (Achilles sings as a bard); (early Christian hymns)

Song of Roland (fight-of-flight syndrome)

Son of Man (Jesus' prediction)

Sophists (opponents of Socrates); (relativity of values in sophistry); (heroism opposed to sophistry); (Socrates exposes sophists in Euthydemus, Gorgias and Protagoras); (modern sophistry and anti-sophistry); (social incorrectness of sophistry) 

Sophocles (spiritual values in Antigone); (Oedipus the King and the truth of prophecy); (summary of Antigone)

Sophroniscus (stone cutter, father of Socrates)

Sorrows of Young Werther, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (copy cat suicides)

Soul (transmigration of souls in Pythagoreanism); (body/soul dualism in the Phaedo); (Phaedo's divine comedy); (mind, soul and consciousness); (heaven and hell as places in the brain);

Space (Homer's view from outer space); (motion in space, Achilles' shield); (spaceless time and timeless space); (Socrates' description of Earth based partly on Homer)

Spanish (and romance languages)

Sparta (Peloponnesian War); (old Argos)

Speech (see language)

Spenser, Edmund (The Faerie Queene, moralized Elizabethan romance)

Speusippus (inherits Academy from Plato)

Sphinx (and Oedipus); (riddle of the sphinx)

Spirits (daemonology); (rival spirits); (humans as playthings of); (of monotheism); (inspiration of poetry); (spirits of revenge in Homer); (spiritual conversion); (control warfare); (future as spiritual consequence of past); (goddess Ate); (Telemakhos calls his father's daemon in Odyssey); (Telemakhos directed by hero-dad); (control of Achilles and Telemakhos); (anima or spirit); (spiritual and temporal worlds in the European Middle Ages); (Socrates' daemon or divine sign); (Socrates trial as spiritual contest between possessed artist and censors); (Plato's spirit talks to Platonists); (political Socrates vs  spiritual Socrates); (Holy Spirit received through Christian baptism); (witnessing Jesus' spirit in Acts); (Paul as imitator of the Lord and Christ) ; (religion as the art that still retains spirits); (disappearance of God in the Middle Ages); (spirits removed in medieval story-telling);

Spiritual possession (of cults); (of shamans, medicine men and poets); (of fanatics); ("St. Matthew and the Angel"); (hero ritual performer as entranced medium); (possession of singer in Iliad); (of Agamemnon); (Telemakhos calls his father's daemon); (Telemakhos directed by hero-dad); (hero possession of lead characters in Homer); (possession readies the actor to kill)(Socrates' daemon or divine sign); (Plato's spirit talks to Platonists); (spiritual influence upon Socrates as only literary); (impersonation of spirits in prophecy); (classical period literary detachment from the spirits); (decline of prophecy in the Middle Ages); (Aeneas as tool of Jupiter); (heaven and hell as places in the brain);

Sports (funeral games for Patroklos); (jousting tournament in Chrétien)

State (church and state in the European Middle Ages)

Statues (see "sculpture")

Stephen (first Christian martyr);

Steppenwolf, Hermann Hesse (cult fiction)

Stevenson, CL, Ethics and Language (modern sophistry)

Stoics (followers of Socrates); (Zeno of Cyprus, founder)

Stone Age (cave painting); (story-telling)

Storms (reflect anger of gods)

Story telling (origin of story telling); (Odysseus' story telling to the Phaeacians); (the first story); (magical features in story telling); (Hellenes as story tellers); (achievement of personal identification through story telling); (appeals to sympathy); (characterization in stories); (spiritual conversion in story telling); (confession in story telling); (original Hellenic story of animal killed on hunt); (recurring story patterns in Homer); (true and false stories); (Patroklos' story is magical); (misreading fate's story); (mythology); (story telling and lying); (association with animal sacrifice); (Homer nests or threads many stories); (story teller as favorite character type in Homer); (Phaedo the enraptured medium for the voice of Socrates); (story-telling and Christian heresies); (Aeneid as imperial propaganda)

Strassburg, Gottfried von (Tristram and Isolde)

Structure (beginning in the middle of things); (inner vs outer world); (Augustine's sin/grace dualism); (organization of the Bible); (The Knight of the Cart, classic structure)

Style (Homer's oral style); (prophetic eloquence); (common oral style of literary romances)

Styx (and Achilles heel); (river of emotions in Dante's Inferno);

Subject (subject/object duality); (active and passive descriptions)

Subjectivity (literature's problem of subjectivity)

Suffering (as retaliation for harms); (brings recognition of the wholeness of life and death); (suffering of the tragic hero); (Francis as crusader)

Suicide (Lancelot's death wish)

Suitors (mindless rivals in the Odyssey); (errors of belief); (at feast of Apollo); (slaughter of suitors for mocking at death); (as step fathers of the fairy tale kind)

Superstition (comic character of the superstitious man)

Survival (and story telling)

Suzanna and the Elders (and slandered heroines)

Swan (Socrates as Apollo's swan singing before death)

Sibyls (impersonators of spirits)

Sympathetic magic (traditional rituals); (of Telemakhos voyage and miraculous return)

Sympathy (appeals to sympathy in the Homeric songs); (characterization as practice of empathy); (purpose of Greek tragedy to arouse sympathy); (Patroklos sympathy with Achaeans); (Achilles sympathy with Patroklos); (thought transmission is major theme of Hellenic literature)

Szasz, Thomas (The Meaning of Mind)

T

Tales (not fiction or poetry but remembered stories); (Fairy tales and the Odyssey)

Taliesin (Arthur timeline)

Tartuffe, Moliere (classic character of religious hypocrite)

Taurus (the bull-man Minotaur)

Teaching (Phoenix as teacher in Iliad); (teacher wars in Plato's dialogues); (Socrates as idealized teacher); (teaching as imitation); (Socrates and the students); (Socrates as the defining teacher); (Raphael's "School of Athens"); (Socrates survives death in his cult); (thought transmission is major theme of Hellenic literature); (cyber-school); (John the Baptizer as Jesus' teacher)

Technology of literature (effect on literary history); (Thoth inventor of writing); (take over of humanity by technological inventions); (cyber-school); (oral and written stories of Jesus)

Teiresias (dead prophet in the Odyssey); (prophecy); (source of knowledge); (prophetic powers); (death at Thebes)

Telemakhos (as reflection of Hektor's son Astyanax); (finds "Odysseus" through Athena); (Telemakhos is the central character of the Odyssey); (quest for his father); (sympathetic magic or voyage and return); (gives unity to the Odyssey); (Hamlet-like); (calls his father's daemon); (multiple personality disorder); (pose as merely a boy); (directed by dad); (hangs chamber maids); (paranoid psychosis); (as Zeus-man); (as liar); (heroes called to avoid personal responsibility for killing); (sensory or passive character description)

Television (and broadcast media)

Temperance (and courage of the philosopher)

Temptation (of Achilles); (temptation by the body in the Phaedo)

Tennyson, Alfred ("Ulysses"); (Idyls of the King)

Terrorism (do terrorists make heroic choice?)

Thessaly (name for Achilles' Phthia in classical times); (Paul's Thessalonian congregation); (Christian church at Thessaly founded by Paul)

Thales (first philosopher)

Theater (in Hellenic tragedy); (development of theater from Homer); (the rise and fall of Greek tragedy); (closet drama and early children's theater); (theater of Dionysus at Athens); (Plato disposes with the physical theater); (Socrates sees beneath masks worn by hypocrites and pretenders in their social roles); (Athenian culture exposed by Socrates as masquerade); (Plato saw the power of theater in Aristophanes' Clouds)

Thebes, Egypt (richest city known to Homer)

Thebes, Greece (founded by Cadmus the Phoenician); (destroyed by Argives); (origin story in Apollodorus); (origin story in Pausanias); (birthplace of Dionysus); (death of Teiresias); (sacked by Diomedes); (date of fall); (Seven against Thebes and Sons of the Heroes)

Theft (Aeolus episode in the Odyssey); (hero ritual helps thieves avoid getting caught); (Autolycus in the Odyssey)

Theogony, Hesiod (in Plato's Euthyphro)

Thersites (reflects Achilles' point of view); (as a prototype for Socrates); (social critic at Troy)

Theseus (father of Athenian politics); (Theseus and Minotaur myth in Plato); (Thesean festival at Athens, background to the death of Socrates); (Burne-Jones "Theseus and the Minotaur"); (Theseian festival ship); (Theseus and the minotaur compared to The Knight of the Cart)

Thetis (and Achilles' prayer to Zeus); (painting by Ingres); (tells Achilles his fate); (as mother of Achilles); (Peleus and Thetis Page); (Thetis and Mary, mother of Jesus); (reveals Achilles' fate); (ritual lament for Patroklos); (Achilles' shield and divine armor); (advice to Achilles); (Thetis and Socrates' woman in white) 

Thirty Tyrants (installed at Athens)

Thomas of Britain (Tristram and Ysolt)

Thomas of Celano (collector of Francis' legend)

Thoth (Egyptian Hermes and Book of the Dead); (invents writing)

Thousand and One Nights (magical entertainment)

Thrace (Achilles' homeland, Phthia)

Thucydides (historian of Peloponnesian War); (presents the past); (Pericles' funeral oration); (works on line); (dates the Trojan War)

Time (present and past are not here); (predicting the future); (reading the future through the past in the Homeric songs); (Kalkhas knows future and past); (future already exists in Homer); (Homeric time sense versus modern history); (past is not lost in hero worship); (four ages of Hesiod); (spaceless time and timeless space); (Keats, "Ode on a Grecian Urn"); (Skamandros or Xanthos River as image of time); (suitors in the Odyssey live entirely in the present); (history traditionally presents the past); (modern historians and scientific method) ; Herodotus and Thucydides); (time/eternity dualism)

Tomb (classic structure in story telling); (Lancelot opens his own tomb)

Totem and Taboo, Sigmund Freud (omnipotence of thoughts)

Tragedy (secularized development from hero ritual); (sacrifice in Macbeth and Julius Caesar); (the rise and fall of Greek tragedy); (Oedipus the King and the truth of prophecy); (Antigone and the values of hero religion); (Orestia); (Dante's use of tragedy as depressant);

Transcendental poetry (versus natural poetry in Coleridge)

Translation (student exercise); (translation as exercise for aspiring writers); (Pentecost)

Transmigration of souls (in Pythagoreanism)

Trial (Socrates trial as spiritual contest); (Zeus' favor determined in trial by combat); (legal wrangling in classical Athens); (prosecutors of Socrates); (witch trial of Socrates); (sham trials of Jesus and Socrates); (trial of the questing knight); (Socrates' jury); (trial of Stephen); (trial by combat: a knight defends his lady's honor); (Dante's refusal to stand trial);

Tricks (hero rituals as tricks upon the dead)

Tristan (Beroul's Tristan and Iseult); (Thomas of Britain's Tristram and Ysolt)(romantic lovers go "back to nature"); (Gottfried von Strassburg, Tristram and Isolde)

Troilus (in medieval romances of the Troy story); (Boccaccio, Il Filostrato); (Chaucer, Troilus and Creseyde)

Trojan War (date); (Schliemann excavation); (Trojan War cycle of ancient stories); (Demodocus story of fall of Troy); (origin in choice of Paris); (war conducted for benefit of Argos); (importance of Trojan War for Zeus cult); (date before or after Theban War); (in the time of Oedipus or Laius); (oral transmission of the Troy story); (use of Trojan War story to excuse killing); (common setting for romances); (part of Jupiter's plan in Virgil); (fall of Troy in Virgil's Aeneid)

Trophonius (hero shrine in Boeotia) 

Troubadours (Eleanor of Aquitaine)

Troy (date of fall); (war with Achaeans); (King Priam of Troy); (date of fall); (oral transmission of the Troy story); (Schliemann's treasures); (fall of Troy part of Jupiter's plan in Virgil); (fall of Troy in Virgil's Aeneid)

Truth (of the Bible); (truth of the Bible as history)

U

Upanishads (and the ancient awakening of humanity)

"Ulysses" (Tennyson's poem); (Joyce's novel); (Ulysses theme in literature)

Uncle Tom's Cabin (and American Civil War)

United States (US Constitution and Athenian democracy)

University (Plato's Academy)

Utopia (Plato's Republic, the first literary utopia); (John Rawls' social contract theory in utopian literary tradition)

V

Values (relativity of values in sophistry); (values by agreement in the Crito) 

Vegetarianism (of Pythagoreans)

Venerable Bede, Ecclesiastical History (story of Caedmon)

Ventris, Michael (deciphered Linear B)

Venus (goddess of love); (in Raphael's "Knight's Dream"); (in "Venus de Milo"); (mother of Aeneas in Virgil)

Verbs (active and passive);

Vice or sin or vice (human instincts adapted for pre-civilized living conditions)

Victims (hunter and victim are one); (suffering of victims in Homer); (in Paleolithic cave art); (victim presentation in Homeric songs); (Odysseus as war victim); (identification with victims in Homer); (retaliation); (victims become human); (victims as cattle in the Odyssey); (reading victims to see the future); (victim as tragic hero); (victim becomes sacrificer and vice versa); (Kalkhas and augury); (Hektor and Aninoos as victims); (Holy Communion, Passover and Apollo's feast); (Paul's imprisonments)

Video games (and modern literature)

Viet Name War (and the Iliad)

Violence (as theme in Homer); (in male behavior); (heroic insanity to avoid responsibility for killing); (common themes of sex and violence in literary romances)

Virgil (timeline); (internet links for Virgil and the Aeneid);  (Latin imitation of Homer); (Aeneid picks up Homer's story of Aeneas); (sensory or passive character description); (Virgil's Aeneas and Dante)

Virtue (Penelope as example of virtuous wife); (Socrates' attempts to define virtues); (piety in Euthyphro); (courage and temperance of the philosopher); (Christian morality)

Voice (active and passive verbs);

W

Wace, (Roman de Brut, Arthurian timeline)

Wagner, Richard (influence of Wagnerian opera on Hitler); (Tristan und Isolde)

Warfare (reflection of spiritual conditions); (chariot warfare in Homer); (Battle of the ships in Iliad); (features of Homeric warfare); (Homeric warriors want glory); (Homeric battlefield is an image of imagination); (arms and armor in Homer); (magic war cry); (Viet Nam War and the Iliad); (breakdown of magic on the battlefield); (Zeus' favor determined in trial by combat); (legal wrangling as substitute for combat  in classical Athens); (possession prepares the actor to kill); (reader interest in Iliad peaks in times of war); (Homer's warriors motivated by shame or fame); (spiritual causes for losses in war)(Francis as crusader); (a knight defends his lady's honor); (divine basis for war in Virgil's Aeneid);

Water (associated with primordial chaos); (baptism) 

Weather (reflection of spiritual conditions)

White, Hayden (books on literary elements in history writing)

William the Conqueror (Arthurian timeline); (Norman image of Arthur)

Wisdom (as Athena); (valued above worldly goods by Plato and early literates); (wise men of the ancient axial period); (no wisdom in Plato's Athens); (philosophy = love of wisdom); (wisdom of Daedalus) 

Witchcraft (Socrates trial); (accusation of witchcraft); (Circe, witch of the Odyssey); (Telemakhos calls his father's daemon in Odyssey); (Cashdan, The Witch Must Die); (witch trial of Socrates); (witch hunts to affix blame for misfortunes); (the Lady of the Lake, Lancelot of the Lake)

Witness (how Jesus is "witnessed"); (witnessing Jesus in Acts)

Women (Griselda, Suzanna, good women and innocent brides slandered); (Penelope as example of virtuous wife); (Klytemnestra as example of faithless wife); (tombstone of a young girl); (women in Paul); (Francis and Clare); (power of the female over the male in literary romances); (common theme of sex in literary romances); (power of the sex drive in The Knight of the Cart); (chivalry and courtly love); (anger/love syndrome); ( Chrétien's women love winners); (the lady's honor); (Guinevere's honor); (Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love); (Dido in Virgil's Aeneid)

Wonder (or thought as object of idealist art)

Wood (human bodies conditioned by nature in the wilderness); (the Green Knight represents nature in Gawain and the Green Knight)

Words (are winged in the Iliad); (have no effect on enemy in battle); (hectoring, rant or bluster); (nouns and verbs)

Wordsworth, William (Lyrical Ballads and recovery of oral style in poetry)

World Trade Center (attack of Osama bin Laden); (effect of terrorist attack on literature)

Writing (art of writing lost to Hellenes); (origin of writing among the Hellenes); (probably known to Homer); (supposed loss of writing in Helladic Dark Ages); (writing on animal skins); (four ages of literature); (Thoth invents writing); (Marshall McLuhan's Gutenberg Galaxy); (writing and the great awakening of humanity); (prose came in with the invention of writing); (philosopher and monk as creatures of writing); (exercises for aspiring writers); (early Christian writing)

Writing, Linear B script (early Greek); (supposed loss of writing in Helladic Dark Ages); (wet clay tablets);

X

Xenophanes of Colophon (critic of Homer); (immorality of Homer's gods)

Xenophon (Memories of Socrates); (follower of Socrates)

Y

Youth (and age); (suitors in the Odyssey are figures of youth, lacking sense of time); (Telemakhos must mature); (Telemakhos' pose as mere boy); (youthful presentation in funerary art); (literary romances model courtship for young people)

Z

Zarathustra (and the ancient awakening of humanity) 

Zeno (founder of the Stoic school); (in Raphael's "School of Athens")

Zeus (king of gods in Hellenic mythology); (punishment of Odysseus); (in the form of a bull); (storm god); (image of Zeus); Ingres' "Jupiter and Thetis"); (fights with Hera); (sends sign of victory to Achaeans); (god of singers); (brings about fated events); (wrestles with Achilles' angry prayer); (begets sons upon mortal women everywhere); (favors Aeneas); (Achilles bitterness toward Zeus); Fortune and misfortune (sent from Zeus); (Zeus and his father Kronos); (Zeus' favor determined in trial by combat); (anger of Zeus at Athens); (if "deep minded" Zeus had written Genesis)

Zeus-men (cult of Zeus); (expansion through rape); (importance of Trojan War); (animal herd model for old Zeus cult); (Telemakhos as Zeus-man); (date of the Zeus-men); (Plato's Euthyphro as Zeus-man); (genealogical structure of Zeus-man society); (wars to determine Zeus' favor); (Minos first Zeus-man on Crete)

Zoroaster (and the ancient awakening of humanity) 


Powers of Literature
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